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A Guide to the Spessard L. Holland Papers

 

Finding aid prepared by John R. Nemmers

University of Florida Smathers Libraries - Special and Area Studies Collections
January 2005

 

Spessard L. Holland

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Holland, Spessard L. (Spessard Lindsey), 1892-1971
Title: Spessard L. Holland Papers
Dates: 1913-1972
Abstract: Personal and official political papers, dated 1913-1972, of former U.S. Senator and Florida Governor, Spessard Lindsey Holland.
Extent: 264 Linear feet. 631 Boxes.
Identification: Ms 55
Language(s): English
Access: Researchers should consult with Special Collections staff before using the collection because there are access restrictions. See the Access note for more information.

Biographical/Historical Note

Spessard Lindsey Holland's career in public service spanned approximately fifty years. A lifelong citizen of Florida, he held positions as County Judge, State Senator, Governor, and finally as a member of the U.S. Senate. A self-described "moderate conservative with a little liberalism in many areas" and a member of the Democratic Party, he appealed to a large number of voters in Florida and never lost an election throughout his career.

Spessard Lindsey Holland was born on July 10, 1892 in Bartow, Polk County, Florida, where he was raised and educated. His father, Benjamin F. Holland, was a citrus grower and abstractor, and his mother, Fannie Virginia (Spessard) Holland, was a school teacher. In 1912, he graduated with a Bachelor in Arts degree from Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. Following graduation, he taught public school in Warrenton, Georgia, until 1914 and then returned to Florida to attend the University of Florida College of Law. An active student, he served as president of the student body and editor-in-chief of the yearbook, The Seminole. He was an outstanding athlete and attracted the attention of professional teams. He was sufficiently impressive as a pitcher for the UF baseball team that manager Connie Mack offered him a position on his ball club. Holland declined because he was not very interested in becoming a professional athlete, especially at the age of 24. He decided to complete his education as a lawyer, and earned his degree in 1916. That same year, he was admitted to the bar in Florida and commenced practice in his hometown of Bartow.

When the United States entered World War I in 1917, Holland joined the Army and the Coast Artillery Corps. He went to Europe with the 31st Artillery Brigade, and then transferred to the Air Force where he served with the 24th Flying Squadron in France. For his valor during combat flights, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. At the end of the war in 1919, he retired with the rank of Captain and returned to Bartow. He married Mary Alice Groover, whom he had met while on leave in Florida, and resumed the practice of law.

Holland served as prosecuting attorney of Polk County in 1919 and 1920. He next campaigned for and was elected to the position of county judge, a position he held from 1921 until 1929. Throughout the period, he continued to maintain his own law practice. In the early 1920s, he formed a partnership with W.F. Bevis establishing a firm that would last several decades and include partners such as Robert L. Hughes, Jr., and William A. McRae, Jr. In between those years spent in public office, Holland always returned to his practice in Bartow.

Holland was elected to the State Senate in 1932 and served two four-year terms until 1940. As a state senator, he was the author of several pieces of legislation related to citrus, including the Citrus Commission Act, the Frost and Freeze Forecast Act, and the Citrus Advertising Act. He voted against the repeal of the 18th Amendment because Polk County was voluntarily a dry county and his constituents had a negative reaction to the possible repeal of prohibition. He led opposition to a Florida Recovery Act issue seeking to eliminate chain stores, a controversial measure that he and his fellow opponents were successful in defeating. He also helped draft the Florida School Code and supported other acts intended to improve public schools and teacher benefits. He was a strong supporter of the Soil Conservation District Act, the Fair Trade Act, and several bills reducing or repealing taxes in the state.

During his second term, Holland's reputation grew when a filibuster to prevent a vote on controversial salary buying legislation led to physical violence on the floor of the Senate. Holland and other supporters of the legislation saw salary buying as little more than loan sharking and sought to define the practice as lending so that it could be regulated and the racketeers put out of business. At the end of the 1939 session, Sen. R. Lucas Black emerged as the leading opponent to the bill and threatened a filibuster in order to delay the roll call until the end of the session. During a recess after a day of argument on the Senate floor, Black engaged Sen. Joe Sharit, a proponent of the legislation, in a heated exchange. When Holland stepped over to intervene, Black struck Holland with his cane. Neither Holland nor Sharit retaliated, and Black later apologized for his behavior. As a result of the threatened filibuster the legislation was removed from consideration that session, but the episode served to enhance Holland's image around the state as an honorable politician.

Holland was hesitant to run for the governor's office because he was more interested in serving on the U.S. Senate and he was aware that the system of patronage appointments often hurt the chances of former governors to win a seat in the Senate. He believed that for every appointment made by a governor, there were several newly created enemies among those people who weren't appointed. However, he did decide to run for the position and began his campaign in 1939. He defeated Francis Whitehair in the 1940 Democratic gubernatorial primary and faced no Republican opponent in the general election later that year. In January 1941, he was sworn in as the 28th governor of Florida.

As a war-time governor, Holland's administration was principally concerned with Florida's defense effort during World War II. He coordinated the state's defense in close cooperation with the federal government. At his request, his brother, Frank Holland, became a principal figure in organizing the state's non-military civil defense. Under Governor Holland's leadership, the state implemented the largest road and highway construction program in its history. Primarily for defense, and built with a great deal of federal assistance, the construction greatly improved the state's transportation infrastructure and increased opportunities for development following the war.

During his four-year term, Holland led or supported several important initiatives. He established the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission as a separate agency. A stronger ad valorem tax structure was established, thereby rescuing that system of taxation. He helped form the Minimum Foundation Program for public schools, and increased state assistance to the blind and aged. As a member of the Southern Governors' Committee on Freight Rates, he led a successful fight to reduce rates. In 1944, the deed to state lands in the Everglades was executed, paving the way for the creation of the Everglades National Park. He also served on the Executive Committee of the National Governors' Conference, providing him with the opportunity to work at the national level with several individuals he would later work with during his tenure in the U.S. Senate.

Despite Holland's hesitancy in 1940 to campaign for governor because of the patronage system, his fears proved to be unwarranted. As a result of World War II, a number of people were involved in the war effort and there was less demand for positions. When his term ended in 1945, he knew that had avoided making too many enemies around the state and had a good chance at a seat in the Senate. He had been informed earlier than most that Senator Charles O. Andrews was not going to seek re-election due to poor health, thereby providing him with an opportunity in the 1946 election. He met with and received assurances from Doyle E. Carlton and J. Hardin Peterson, two prominent Florida politicians and close friends, that they would not be running in the campaign so he would not be hindering their own efforts or campaigning against them. When his term as governor ended in 1945, he returned to Bartow to practice law and begin his campaign. In the Democratic primary election in early 1940, he ran against and defeated Lex Green, Polly Rose Balfe and Henry M. Burch. In September, two months before the general election, Senator Andrews died while in office and Governor Millard Caldwell appointed Holland to complete the unexpired term. While holding this office, Holland defeated Republican J. Harry Schad and officially was elected to a full Senate term beginning in 1947.

Holland considered the ratification of the 24th Amendment, officially ending the poll tax, as one of the great successes of his Senate career. From his days in the Florida Senate, he had supported efforts to abolish the tax but had seen no progress on the issue in more than ten years. He disliked the poll tax primarily because it resulted in corrupt machine politics wherein political leaders would buy the votes of those who couldn't afford to pay the tax themselves. Holland was aware that the poll tax had a significant impact on poor African Americans, but was more interested in halting corrupt politics than in passing a piece of civil rights legislation. After witnessing the defeat of anti-poll tax legislation again and again, he decided that it could not be abolished by statute because the courts would declare such legislation unconstitutional. In fact, for this very reason he debated against such a piece of legislation in 1948 even though he supported the measures of the bill. The very next year, he proposed an amendment to the Constitution seeking to abolish the tax. For the next thirteen years, he continued to submit the amendment during each session. Finally, in 1962, the amendment was approved by Congress and submitted for ratification by the states. His long crusade to overturn the poll tax finally succeeded in 1964 with the ratification of the 24th Amendment to the Constitution.

Another long battle in which Holland eventually prevailed was the fight to pass the Tidelands Act, formally known as the Submerged Lands Act. As Governor of Florida, it had been his understanding that the federal government recognized the maritime states' ownership of the submerged lands off of their coasts. In fact, he had cooperated closely with the government and Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes whenever they sought permission to use Florida's submerged lands, so he knew that there was precedence for the federal government's recognition that these were state-owned lands. In 1945, however, Ickes led an effort to bring suit against California, and later other coastal states, disputing this ownership. The federal government wanted control of the oil available in these submerged lands and the struggle quickly became known as the Tidelands Oil affair. In 1947, the Supreme Court ruled that the federal government had the right to these lands and upheld this split decision in later rulings. The states were outraged and set out to overturn this decision.

From the onset of his term Holland supported the fight to create tidelands legislation ensuring state ownership, but it proved to be a frustrating struggle. In 1951 and 1952, however, he took over the leadership of the effort and sponsored a bill that was narrowly passed in 1952. When President Truman vetoed the legislation, Holland and his supporters could not find enough votes to override the veto. With the change of Senate leadership in 1953 Holland expected to step back into a supporting role, but was surprised to find that the new Republican leadership wanted him to stay on as co-leader, along with Price Daniel of Texas. When the bill came up again in 1953, they knew that they had a good chance at victory because they had the votes in the Senate and the new Eisenhower administration was much more favorable towards the bill than Truman had been. In a desperate attempt to kill the legislation opponents in the Senate began a filibuster, during which either he or Daniels had to be on the floor every minute day or night for forty days. The filibuster failed, the bill passed, and Eisenhower signed it in 1953. Subsequently, the legislation was tested and upheld twice in the Supreme Court, and on the second occasion in 1959, Holland assisted to write Florida's briefs and closed the State's argument before the Court.

With twenty-two years on the Agriculture and Forestry Committee, sixteen years on the Appropriations Committee, and over six years on the Public Works Committee, Holland had the opportunity to support numerous programs benefiting Florida. He strongly endorsed the controversial Cross Florida Barge Canal for almost twenty years, and proposed several pieces of legislation to further the construction of that waterway. In 1947 and 1948, Holland pushed to set up the Central and South Florida Flood Control program, which was recommended by the Corps of Engineers following the 1947 hurricane and floods. He also sponsored and supported several water navigation, soil conservation, and highway projects in the state, and continued his lifelong support of the Everglades National Park. In addition, he used his ten years of service on the National Aeronautical and Space Committee to help ensure the success of the Florida space program.

On a broader scope, Holland was very active on issues not directly related to Florida. He was first Senator to urge statehood for Alaska and Hawaii. He supported and actively fought for the completion of the St. Lawrence Seaway. He participated in the investigation and debate of problems associated with migrant and off-shore labor. Holland also believed in strong relations with Latin America, and was extremely proud of his work to push for the creation of an Inter-American Highway through Central America to get land access to the Panama Canal. In addition, he was a supporter of Interama and constantly endorsed legislation that would strengthen U.S. ties with Latin America.

Throughout his career, Holland actively campaigned for anti-communist legislation and activities. He was a strong proponent of the Marshall Plan, NATO, and President Truman's plan to send aid to post-war Greece and Turkey in order to halt the growth of communism in that region. In the 1950s, he supported the decision to fight in Korea and voted for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964, although he later declared it a mistake on his part. Domestically, he sought to dampen the influence of organized labor, feeling that there was too much corruption and fearing the influence of communism. In 1947, he actively supported the Taft-Hartley Act in order to prevent strikes and lock-outs in vital industries, and he fought against its repeal in 1949. For the next two decades, he sponsored and supported legislation to prevent strikes and curb the abuses by labor interests.

Holland's stance on the Civil Rights issue is less clear than his position on other important issues debated during his tenure in the Senate, and possibly this is as Holland intended. In fact, as Holland prepared to write an autobiography during his retirement he created lists of topics he wanted to cover and neglected to include any of the Civil Rights program, except as it related to the 1960 Democratic National Convention. Described by some as a racist and supporter of segregation, he nevertheless was not as outspoken on the issue as some of his fellow Dixiecrats. And even if Holland had favored civil rights legislation, it is unlikely he would have supported it openly for fear that he would lose the support and gain the animosity of his constituents. Holland played an active part in the 1949 and 1950 fight of Southern Senators to defeat enactment of a Civil Rights program. But when the Supreme Court handed down its landmark Brown v. Board decision in 1954, he asked the citizens of Florida to support the decision even though they might not agree with it. Less than two years later, however, he signed the Southern Manifesto criticizing the Brown decision as an abuse of judicial power. Despite the fact that he fought for several years to abolish the poll tax, finally succeeding in 1964 with the 24th Amendment, he made it clear that he was fighting political corruption rather than creating "so-called civil rights" legislation.

Holland decided to retire from the Senate at the age of 78, explaining that he did not believe he could vigorously serve the interests of his constituents for a fifth full term. In 1971, he returned to his home in Bartow, Florida, to spend time with his wife and family and to work on his autobiography. He died on November 6, 1971.

Sources: Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789-1978, edited by Robert Sobel and John Raimo (Westport, CN: Meckler Books), 1978. "George A. Smathers, United States Senator, 1951-1969," Oral History Interviews, Senate Historical Office, Washington, D.C. Henry, Bill, The Holland Years: WFLA-TV news director Bill Henry talks with former United States senator Spessard Holland (Tampa, FL: WFLA), 1971. Holland, Spessard L., unpublished autobiography fragments, Spessard L. Holland Papers, Special and Area Studies Collections, University of Florida Libraries, ca. 1971. United States Congress, Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 (Alexandria, VA: CQ Staff Directories), 1997.


Scope and Content

The collection spans the dates 1913-1972 and primarily consists of materials accumulated by Holland during his eight years in the Florida Senate and his twenty-four years in the U.S. Senate. In addition, there are numerous personal, business, and legal files covering almost sixty years of his life. The majority of the collection is comprised of papers, although it also contains photographs, memorabilia, and manuscript material. His papers provide a fascinating perspective on several decades of the twentieth century, particularly the 1930s through the early 1970s. As with all political collections of significant size, the materials cover a wide range of subjects. Of particular interest are those events and issues that have shaped the nation and world, including World War II, organized labor, the Vietnam War, the spread of communism, the civil rights movement, the space race, and the Cold War. Prominent topics related to Florida include the citrus industry, the Everglades National Park, flood control, the Cross Florida Barge Canal, wartime defense, tidelands, and Cuba.

The collection is arranged into twenty series that document Holland's professional and personal life. Despite the grouping of materials into logical series, information on particular topics can be dispersed throughout the collection and researchers may find relevant materials in several series. For the most part, personal papers are filed separately from official papers, reflecting the filing practices employed by Holland and his staff. Therefore, the series tend to be either personal (e.g., correspondence, business papers, campaign files) or official (e.g., State Senate papers, U.S. Senate papers), although there are a few series that contain both. The Personal Files and Miscellaneous Correspondence series, for example, contain Holland's personal and family correspondence, legal files, and business papers, primarily from the 1920s and 1930s. The Florida Senate Legislative Files, spanning 1928 to 1940, contain the correspondence, legislation, and subject files from Holland's tenure in the State Senate. There are several series of campaign files covering his campaigns for the Florida Senate, the 1940 Gubernatorial election, and U.S. Senate campaigns.

Although the official papers of Holland's term as Governor of Florida (1941-1945) reside in the State Archives, the collection does contain materials created or accumulated by Holland during this period. The Gubernatorial General Correspondence series, dated 1940-1944, includes files related to Holland's inauguration and the formation of his administration and staff, as well as recommendations and solicitations for appointments. Correspondence between Holland and members of the military during World War II can be found in the Service Men's Letters series. The Miscellaneous Personal Files series, 1925-1946, primarily consists of personal correspondence, business papers, and financial material created while in office.

The largest series, the Senatorial Papers, is further divided into several sub-series according to session of Congress. Holland's Senate office originally organized his files according to the File Code of the U.S. Senate, and this arrangement has been maintained (for more information, please refer to the series description for the Senatorial Papers). Each sub-series documents his legislative activities and is comprised of official correspondence, legislation, reports, news clippings, memoranda, and subject files. Numerous topics, such as civil rights, anti-poll tax legislation, and the Cross Florida Barge Canal, span several sessions of Congress and are spread across multiple sub-series.

Photographs, speeches, press releases, and miscellaneous materials, which cover both personal and official aspects of Holland's life, are filed in separate series. A series of newspaper and newsletter clippings collected by Mary Holland, dated 1941-1970, also includes a small amount of memorabilia such as programs, invitations, and correspondence. Among the materials in the Miscellaneous series are memorabilia, articles, biographical information, certificates, and other ephemera collected or created by Holland throughout his life. Of particular interest is the autobiography Holland began preparing during his retirement in 1971.

With the exception of the Senatorial Papers series, which has its own filing scheme, the files in each series are arranged alphabetically or chronologically.


Access or Use Restrictions

Access

The collection is open for research. The presence of constituent mail in this collection requires mediated access. Researchers must consult with Special Collections staff before using the collection and must agree in writing to the following conditions: Congressional constituent mail is considered a type of privileged correspondence. Reproduction of constituent mail in any format is prohibited. Further, researchers using constituent mail must agree not to divulge the names or addresses of constituents or provide information that could conceivably identify constituents.


Related or Separated Material

A collection of Spessard Lindsey Holland Papers housed in the Florida State University Special Collections department is comprised of gubernatorial papers, Senatorial campaign papers, personal correspondence dated 1940-1971, Floridiana, membership and affiliation files, materials related to his service in World War I, photographs, memorabilia, and files related to his retirement in 1971. In addition, The Claude Pepper Collection at Florida State University contains material related to the 1958 Pepper-Holland primary campaign as well as numerous other files pertaining to subjects common to both politicians.

The official papers of Holland's term as Governor of Florida, 1941-1945, are retained by the Florida State Bureau of Archives and Records Management. In addition, the State Archives also holds the Oral History Program files of Governor Bob Graham, of which Holland was a subject.


Administrative Information

Alternate Form of Finding Aid

Due to its large size this descriptive finding aid has been broken into several pages, but an alternate full version of the finding aid is available at http://www.library.ufl.edu/spec/pkyonge/Hollandfull.htm. Warning: The file size for the full finding aid exceeds 1,500 Kb and download time may be affected.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Spessard L. Holland Papers, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Processing Notes

The collection originally was processed in the early 1970s by department staff. In 2005, further processing was completed in order to improve access and create a detailed finding aid to the materials.


Contents List

Personal Files 1925-1945

This series primarily contains personal and family correspondence. In addition, there are legal and financial documents and files related to memberships and affiliations. Correspondents include Holland's Bartow law partner, W.F. Bevis; G.B. "Gabby" Knowles; his wife, Mary Holland; and his brother, Frank Holland. There is also a file pertaining to the genealogy of the Spessard Family. Files are arranged alphabetically.
 
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Miscellaneous Correspondence 1927-1940

This series is comprised of chronological files of personal and business papers, including personal correspondence, legislative papers, and legal documents. Although the majority of Holland's legislative files from his tenure in the Florida State Senate can be found in subsequent series within the collection, it should be noted that some legislative correspondence has been intermixed with the personal and business papers found within this series. Files are arranged chronologically.
 
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Florida Senate - Chronological Correspondence 1933-1939

Chronological files of Holland's correspondence during his term in the State Senate (1932-1940). Files are arranged chronologically by year and then by month.
 
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Florida Senate - Legislative Files 1928-1940

This series contains the correspondence, legislation, and subject files from Holland's tenure in the State Senate. Of particular interest are files related to the Cross Florida Barge Canal, Alberto Camero and the gambling investigation, the Everglades National Park, communism, the University of Florida, labor issues such as strikes and child labor, and Sen. Robert L. Black's fight with Holland in the Senate. There are numerous files pertaining to chain stores and the Florida Recovery Act, the Florida School Code, taxation, and the citrus industry. Correspondents include several politicians and well-known figures in Florida, including Fred P. Cone, Duncan U. Fletcher, Peter O. Knight, Phil May, Nathan Mayo, Claude Pepper, J. Hardin Peterson, John Ringling, and David Sholtz. Files are arranged alphabetically.
 
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Campaign Files - General 1931-1964

This series primarily is comprised of material pertaining to Holland's campaigns for the Florida Senate. In addition, there is a small amount of papers related to campaigns for election to the U.S. senate, although researchers should note that the majority of the U.S. Senate campaign files are currently housed at Florida State University in Tallahassee. Included in this series are campaign activity files, news clippings, campaign correspondence, mailing lists, lists of key men and women in the state, support correspondence, and congratulatory letters. Files are arranged chronologically. Papers related to the Gubernatorial campaign in 1940 and the U.S. Senate campaign of 1946 can be found in subsequent series within this collection. Although there are no files related to the 1958 primary race against Claude Pepper, there are some political support files pertaining to this race in the Senatorial Papers 85th Congress 2nd Session series. In addition, the Claude Pepper Collection at the Florida State University has several files related to this election.
 
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Gubernatorial Campaign - Correspondence 1936-1940

Correspondence pertaining to the gubernatorial election in 1940. The correspondence deals with campaign support, key men and women in cities and counties, solicitation for appointments to state positions, scheduling appearances, etc. Correspondents include several politicians and well-known figures in Florida, including Charles O. Andrews, Harold Colee, LeRoy Collins, R.A. Gray, Sid Herlong, Phil May, Allen Morris, Claude Pepper, J. Hardin Peterson, A.G. Shands, Bob Sikes, John J. Tigert, and Park Trammell. Other correspondents include family members, friends and business partners including Mary Holland, Frank Holland, W.A. McRae, and W.F. Bevis. There is a special "Colored" file for African American supporters and issues. Files are arranged alphabetically.
 
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Gubernatorial Campaign - Ledger Books Regarding Appointees to State Positions 1940

Alphabetical ledger books containing information regarding individuals seeking appointment to state positions once Holland was elected Governor of Florida. The information sheets within each ledger are arranged alphabetically according to departments and offices of the state government. Each sheet typically contains the name of the individual, the appointment they are seeking, and any special notes about the appointment.
 
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Gubernatorial Campaign - General Files 1933-1940

This series is comprised of miscellaneous files pertaining to the 1940 Gubernatorial campaign. Included are advertisements and campaign literature, itineraries, radio files, form letters, news clippings, press releases, correspondence with key men and supporters on various issues, editorials, Holland's platform, and campaign activity files. There are numerous campaign issue and subject files, including national defense, citrus, racing, chain stores and the Florida Recovery Act, health care, the Everglades, taxes, unemployment, and education. In addition, there are several files of newspaper clippings pertaining to campaign opponents, including Francis Whitehair, B.F. Paty, Fuller Warren, and Walter Fraser. Files are arranged alphabetically.
 
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Service Men's Letters 1941-1945

Correspondence between Governor Holland and members of the military during World War II. The letters generally discuss matters related to the war and issues affecting the State of Florida. Files are arranged alphabetically.
 
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General Correspondence During Gubernatorial Term 1940-1944

This series primarily contains Holland's personal correspondence during his tenure as Governor of Florida. In addition, there are files related to Holland's establishment of his administration, his inauguration, committee recommendations, appointments, and the gubernatorial staff. There is a great deal of correspondence between Holland and his brother, Frank Holland. Types of materials and topics covered include editorials, memberships and affiliations, the system of patronage, the Southern Governors Conference, civil defense, gifts received, and the removal of Sheriff Walter R. Clark. Files are arranged chronologically by year and then alphabetically within each year.
 
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Miscellaneous Personal Files 1925-1946

The bulk of this series covers Holland's tenure as Governor of Florida, 1941-1945. The series primarily is comprised of personal correspondence, business papers, and financial files. Individuals and organizations include Frank Holland, W.F. Bevis, Emory University, the Florida Historical Society, the Florida State Chamber of Commerce, the Governors Conference, and the University of Florida. Topics include education and public schools, Holland's collection of books on Floridiana, circuit court, and legal cases. Holland's income tax files, dated 1925 to 1944, are also included. Files are arranged alphabetically.
 
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Campaign Files - 1946 Senate Campaign 1943-1946

Correspondence pertaining to the U.S. Senate election in 1946. The correspondence deals with campaign support, key men and women, "Anti-Holland" efforts, campaign issues, the Holland platform, itineraries and engagements, advertising, and the press. Correspondents include Phil May, C.M. Guyton, G. Knowles, and W.H. Hamilton. In addition to the correspondence, there are several files of news clippings, press releases, radio scripts, and campaign literature. There are several files of news clippings and correspondence pertaining to campaign opponents, including Lex Green, Polly Rose Balfe, Henry Burch, and Harry Schad. Files are arranged alphabetically.
 
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Senatorial Papers

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to Holland's service in the U.S. Senate from 1946 to 1971. This series is organized into several sub-series according to Congress and session. Within each session sub-series, it should be noted that the date span covered by the materials exceeds the date span for that session of Congress. For example, a file related to a 1946 piece of legislation may contain reports and other material dating from the late 1930s or early 1940s, which predate the 80th Congress 1st Session sub-series in which the file is located. Although Holland's activities on numerous committees are documented in part by this series, the official committee records are maintained by the federal government.
The files in this series were originally arranged according to the File Code of the U.S. Senate. Under this scheme, each branch of the government and the various offices and departments under each branch were assigned a particular number. For example, the President was assigned Filing Code 1, the State Department was assigned Filing Code 2, the Treasury Department was assigned Filing Code 3, etc. Although the filing code numbers are no longer maintained in this finding aid to the Holland Papers, the arrangement still exists. As such, files dealing with the President are located at the beginning of each sub-series, followed by the State Department, followed by the Treasury Department, and so on.


Senatorial Papers - 80th Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the Army Engineers and flood control and drainage districts, the Florida East Coast Railway, labor legislation, sugar quotas and problems, rent control, the War Assets Administration and various air fields and bases in Florida, socialized medicine, and the Everglades. There are several files pertaining to post-war foreign policy, including the Marshall Plan, Palestine, the United Nations, foreign relief, and Greece and Turkey.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 80th Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, the Democratic National Committee, labor legislation, civil rights, the War Assets Administration and various air fields and bases in Florida, flood control legislation, and the Everglades. There are several files pertaining to post-war foreign policy, including the Marshall Plan, communism, Palestine, the United Nations, and foreign aid. Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland is a file pertaining to the poll tax and Holland's opposition to it.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 81st Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, labor legislation (Taft Hartley and Wage and Hour), the Atomic Energy Commission, flood control legislation, socialized medicine, and the Everglades. There are several files pertaining to post-war foreign policy, including the Marshall Plan, communism, the de-Nazification program, Palestine, the North Atlantic Pact, and Spain. Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to the poll tax, tidelands, and the Taft-Hartley Act. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including lynching, the poll tax, and the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC).
 
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Senatorial Papers - 81st Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, Alger Hiss, Social Security, the arming of Arab states by England, labor (including railroad strikes), the Four Point Program, foot and mouth disease, the Kefauver crime investigation, flood control legislation, socialized medicine, and the Everglades. There are several files pertaining to foreign policy, Korea, China, Spain, socialism, the United Nations, and communism (including charges by Joseph McCarthy). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to tidelands and regional education. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the poll tax and the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC).
 
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Senatorial Papers - 82nd Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, sending wheat to India, President Truman's dismissal of General Douglas MacArthur, labor (including strikes), the Kefauver crime investigation, flood control legislation, socialized medicine, and the Everglades. There are several files pertaining to foreign policy, Spain, socialism, the United Nations, universal military training, and communism (including charges by Joseph McCarthy). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to tidelands, the poll tax, kenaf and ramie, and the Mediterranean Fruit Fly. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 82nd Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, the Democratic Party, Richard Russell, labor (including railroad strikes), the Four Point Program, the Kefauver crime investigation, flood control legislation, socialized medicine, and the Everglades. There are several files pertaining to foreign policy, socialism, the United Nations, and communism (including charges by Joseph McCarthy). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to tidelands and the poll tax. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the poll tax and the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC). Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 83rd Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, the Rosenberg Case, labor (including strikes), flood control, and the Everglades. There are several files pertaining to foreign policy, socialism, NATO, the United Nations, and communism (including charges by Joseph McCarthy). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to tidelands and the poll tax. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the poll tax and the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC). Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 83rd Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, supplying arms to Israel, labor (including strikes), the Bricker Constitutional Amendment, and flood control. There are several files pertaining to foreign policy, China, Indochina, the United Nations, and communism (including Joseph McCarthy and McCarthyism). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to tidelands, the appointing of additional judges, and soil conservation. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, segregation, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 84th Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, labor (including strikes), the Bricker Constitutional Amendment, and flood control. There are several files pertaining to foreign policy, NATO, mutual aid, Formosa, the United Nations, and communism (including Joseph McCarthy and McCarthyism). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to tidelands, color added agriculture, the Seminole Indians, the Everglades, Jim Woodruff Dam, the poll tax, strikes, and civil defense in Volusia County. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, segregation, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 84th Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, supplying arms to Israel, the medfly and spreading decline, labor (including strikes), the Atlantic Coast Line and Florida East Coast Railroads, highways and roads, Social Security, and the Democratic National Convention. There are several files pertaining to foreign policy, mutual aid, the United Nations, and communism. Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to tidelands, the Cross Florida Barge Canal, the Everglades, the poll tax, and sugar bills. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, segregation, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 85th Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, Hungarian refugees, protests to a visit by Tito, the medfly and spreading decline, and labor (including strikes). There are several files pertaining to foreign policy, mutual aid, the United Nations, and communism (including McCarthyism). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to mosquito control, veterans hospitals, tidelands, the Everglades, and the poll tax. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, segregation (including Little Rock, Arkansas), and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 85th Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, Nixon and South American incidents, political support in the primary race against Claude Pepper, and labor (including strikes). There are several files pertaining to foreign policy, mutual aid, the United Nations, and communism (including McCarthyism). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to the Everglades and strikes in public utilities. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, segregation, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 86th Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, a visit by Khrushchev, the Cross State Barge Canal, the 1960 Democratic National Convention, and labor (including strikes). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to the poll tax, pesticides, the Everglades National Park, the barge canal, Castillo de San Marcos, and strikes in public utilities and airlines. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, segregation, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 86th Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, the Panama Canal, the Suez Canal, the Cross State Barge Canal, Hurricane Donna, the Democratic National Convention, and labor (including strikes). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to the poll tax, noxious and obscene materials, and states rights. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, integration, lynching, LeRoy Collins and sit-downs, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 87th Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, Cuba (e.g., Cuban imports, embargo, refugees, and the Bay of Pigs), West Berlin, communism, the Atlantic Coast Line and Seaboard Air Line Railroad merger, NASA and the first American flight into space, and labor (including strikes and migrant labor). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to the poll tax, noxious and obscene materials, the Fair Labor Standards Act, air strikes, judicial districts, phosphate interests, and social security. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, integration, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 87th Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, Cuba (e.g., Cuban imports, embargo, refugees, and the Cuban Missile Crisis), Interama, communism, the Supreme Court decision regarding prayer, miscellaneous conservatism, and labor (including strikes and migrant labor). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to the poll tax, noxious and obscene materials, the Eastern Air Lines strike, and Cuban refugees. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, integration (including Mississippi), and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 88th Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, Cuba (Cuban imports, embargo, refugees), Interama, the Florida East Coast Railroad strike, communism, Holland declining to speak on the acceptance of black students at Emory University, the Supreme Court decision regarding prayer, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, miscellaneous conservatism, and labor (including strikes and minimum wage). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to the poll tax, noxious and obscene materials, strikes, Four Rivers Basin, tobacco, migrant labor, and Cuban refugees. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, integration, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 88th Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, the death of President Kennedy, Cuba (Cuban imports, embargo, refugees), Cape Kennedy, Panama, Vietnam, Haiti, Interama, the Florida East Coast Railroad strike, communism, the Supreme Court decision regarding prayer, the Democratic National Convention, miscellaneous conservatism, and labor (including strikes and minimum wage). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to the poll tax, noxious and obscene materials, beef imports, Four Rivers Basin, reapportionment, the Everglades, and the Federal Power Act. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, integration, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 89th Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, Cuba (Cuban imports, refugees), Vietnam, Haiti, the Florida East Coast Railroad strike, communism, the Cross Florida Barge Canal, miscellaneous conservatism, and labor (including strikes, off-shore labor and minimum wage). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to the poll tax, noxious and obscene materials, oceanography, Four Rivers Basin, reapportionment, the Everglades, Cuban refugees, migrant labor, and the Federal Power Act. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, integration, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 89th Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, Cuba (Cuban imports, refugees), Vietnam, prisoners of war, the Florida East Coast Railroad strike, communism, the Cross Florida Barge Canal, miscellaneous conservatism, and labor (including strikes, off-shore labor and minimum wage). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to noxious and obscene materials, Interama, labor disputes and strikes, reapportionment, the Everglades, and the Federal Power Act. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, integration, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 90th Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, communism, Cuba (Cuban imports, refugees), Vietnam, Israel, Rhodesia, the Florida East Coast Railroad strike, communism, the Cross Florida Barge Canal, miscellaneous conservatism, and labor (including strikes, off-shore labor and minimum wage). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to noxious and obscene materials, public schools, and the Federal Power Act. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, integration, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 90th Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, President Johnson's attempted appointments of Abe Fortas and Homer Thornberry on the Supreme Court, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, communism, Cuba, Vietnam, Israel, Korea, Rhodesia, the Democratic National Convention, and labor (including strikes, off-shore labor and minimum wage). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to noxious and obscene materials, orange juice, phosphate, and the Federal Power Act. In addition, there are several legislation files related to civil rights, including the Supreme Court, the Equal Employment Opportunities Enforcement Act, and the poll tax. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 91st Congress 1st Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, flood control, Cuba, Vietnam, Israel, Korea, Rhodesia, communism, the Cross Florida Barge Canal, Holland's retirement, hunger investigations in migrant camps, and labor (including strikes and off-shore labor). Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to strikes in public utilities, phosphate interests, the Barge Canal, and the Everglades National Park. Note that there is a file entitled "Miscellaneous - Diary of Events" that contains information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for the year.
 
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Senatorial Papers - 91st Congress 2nd Session

Correspondence, legislation, news clippings, reports, memoranda, and subject files related to this session of Congress. Of particular interest are files related to the citrus industry, the Army Engineers projects in Florida, flood control, Cambodia, Cuba, Vietnam, Israel, Rhodesia, communism, the Cross Florida Barge Canal, Holland's retirement, and Seminole cases before the Indian Claims Commission. Among the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Holland are files pertaining to civil rights and the choice of public schools, phosphate interests, the designation of Cape Canaveral as Cape Kennedy, and the Everglades National Park.
 
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Speeches 1931-1970

This series includes speeches and statements made by Holland throughout his career. In addition, there are files containing comments and reaction to his speeches. Radio files contain scripts used by Holland in radio broadcasts as well as correspondence regarding the broadcasts. There are several campaign speeches in this series, including a speech announcing his candidacy for the U.S. Senate, but additional speeches may be found in the campaign series within this collection. Also included are commencement addresses Holland gave at the University of Florida, his 1941 inaugural address as Governor, a speech nominating George Smathers for President at the Los Angeles Democratic National Convention, and speeches pertaining to civil rights in the 1950s and 1960s. Files are arranged chronologically.
 
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Press Releases 1949-1970

This series includes press releases made by Holland throughout his career. There are several campaign press releases in this series, but additional releases may be found in the campaign series within this collection. Files are arranged chronologically.
 
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Trips and Engagements 1953-1964

This small series includes material pertaining to trips made my Holland from 1953 to 1964, as well as some of his engagements during that same period. The majority of the files document trips to Florida cities and counties, but also included are trips to the Chicago Democratic National Convention, to Alaska and the Northwest as a member of the Public Works Committee, a drought tour of the Western U.S., and a trip to Knoxville, Tennessee to meet with Democratic Party officials to discuss the campaign of Adlai Stevenson and his running mate, Estes Kefauver. In addition, there are files documenting his trips to Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela to discuss the Pan American Highway. Note that this series only covers a small period of Holland's career, and some trip and engagement information can be found in files throughout the collection. For example, there are numerous "Diary of Events" files in the Senatorial papers that contain information about Holland's engagements, appointments, and itinerary for each year. Files in this series are arranged alphabetically.
 
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Memberships and Affiliations 1929-1941

This series includes material related to Holland's memberships and affiliations with several associations and organizations. There are several files documenting his activities with the University of Florida Alumni Association between 1929 and 1939. In addition, his involvement with the American Legion, Emory University, Florida Southern College, and Kiwanis, are also represented. Files are arranged alphabetically.
 
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Miscellaneous 1913-1972

This series includes memorabilia, articles, biographical material, citations, certificates, and other ephemera collected or created by Holland throughout his life. The memorabilia includes an Orange Bowl Official armband, a General MacArthur button, a "Candidate for County Judge" card, and a political cartoon. There are numerous certificates related to election results in Florida, as well as an honorary degree in Civil Law from the University of Florida. Published articles include information on the 24th Aero Squadron in World War I, the Pan American Highway, and Holland hunting with his son. Of particular interest is the autobiography Holland began preparing during his retirement but left unfinished upon his death in 1971. In addition, there are copies of 1913 correspondence related to Holland's application for the Rhodes Scholarship, including a brief biographical summary written by Holland to the scholarship committee. Files are arranged alphabetically.
 
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Photographs 1934-1966

This series includes photographs, both prints and negatives, originally interfiled with the papers in the collection. The photographs were removed from their original files and placed into separate folders for preservation purposes. The majority of the photos are from the 1940s and Holland appears as a subject in most. Of particular interest are the numerous photos of Holland's 1941 inauguration as Governor. Other subjects in the photos include politicians, judges, and Florida landmarks and buildings. Also included is a photo album showing unlicensed midwife practitioners and FERA nurses, which was created by "Mrs. Spessard Holland, Chairman Public Health Council of Polk County." Files are arranged alphabetically.
 
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Mary Holland News Clippings 1941-1970

This series contains newspaper and newsletter clippings collected by Mary Holland, primarily covering Holland's terms in the U.S. Senate, 1946-1970. In addition, there is one complete newspaper from 1941, the Inaugural Edition of the Polk County Record, which documents Holland's inauguration as Governor. The majority of these clippings originally were stored in several three-ring binders, but the pages have been removed from the binders and placed in folders. Although the majority of the binders contained only news clippings, there is one folder from 1961 that also contains memorabilia such as event programs, invitations, and correspondence.
 
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Selected Subjects and Access Points

The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the Library's online catalog:
Organizations:
Florida. Governor (1941-1945 : Holland).
Florida. Legislature. Senate.
United States. Congress -- Florida delegation.
United States. Congress. Senate.
Subject Terms:
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District (Fla.).
Citrus fruit industry -- Florida.
Civil rights -- United States.
Communism.
Cross Florida Barge Canal (Fla.)
Everglades National Park (Fla.).
Flood control -- Florida.
Florida -- Politics and government -- 1951-.
Labor unions -- United States.
Poll tax -- Law and legislation -- United States.
Space race -- History.
United States -- Foreign relations -- Cuba.
United States -- Politics and government -- 20th century.
United States. Civil Rights Act of 1964.
United States. Constitution. 24th Amendment.
United States. Submerged Lands Act.
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975.
World War, 1939-1945.


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