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EDUCATION: Ph.D. Anthropology: Union Graduate School, Antioch, 1972

Graduate School in Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1946-1948

Certificate, School of Relief & Reconstruction, Haverford College, PA, 1944.

M.A. equivalent: School of Public Administration and Social Work, UNC, Chapel Hill, 1939

Special Student, Spanish & Art, 1940-1941 Instituto de Bellas Artes, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico

B.A. Psychology: UNC, Chapel Hill, 1937. Honors (Sigma XI) Queens College, 1933-1935 (transferred)

Graduate St. Paul (N.C.) High School, 1933 (Valedictorian)

Education (See endnote 1)


1947 Nobel Peace Prize recipient of group award to the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) Volunteers and the British Society of Friends for their joint work during and after World War II in Europe.

1959 Town square named "Plaza Mary Elmendorf" in San Mateo, Mexico, recognizing contributions of CARE/ AFSC to potable water project.

1959 Nominated for Order of the Aztec Eagle, Mexico's highest honor for foreigners.

1960 CARE Certificate of Merit "In recognition of more than eight years of devotion in the creation of good will between the people of Mexico and the people of the United States."

1960 Diploma awarded by APEI "en reconocimiento por su entusiasta y desintevesada cooperacion en la obra de esta Asociacion", (La Association pro-Entendimiento Internacional/ Business Council for International Understanding, BCIU), Mexico.

1960 Scroll of Recognition, presented by the Board of Directors of the American Society of Mexico, "in recognition of outstanding services to humanity", Mexico.

1960 Award presented by Ambassador Robert Hill for "eight years of outstanding performance as the first chief of CARE mission in Mexico".

1960 Awarded gold medal as a "Friend of Mexican Youth" by the Ministry of Agriculture, Mexico.

1967 Appointed by the Governor to the First Florida Commission on the Status of Women.

1967 Invited by US Department of State to travel to the Dominican Republic as a Visiting Specialist.

1968 Invited by Secretary of State Tom Adams to serve on the coordinating committee of the Florida-Columbia Alliance

1968 Appointed by William Carter, Director for the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida, to serve on the planning committee of the 1972 Senior Fulbright-Hays Scholars Conference for the Southeastern region.

1972 Honorary Alumna of New College, Charter Class of 1965

1972-3 Ford Foundation Fellow as member of the First Task Force on Women

1979-1982 Member Research Advisory Committee (RAC) of US Agency for International Development.

1979 The World Who's Who of Women, Certificate of Merit, 5th Edition

1981 Praxis Award "For excellence in translating Anthropological Knowledge into Action". by Washington Association of Professional Anthropologists (WAPA).

1982 Margaret Mead Award "For applying principles of anthropology to the resolution of issues of contemporary human concern and influencing a concerned public outside of anthropology", first time presented by both the American Anthropological Association and the Society for Applied Anthropology, March.

1992 Nominated as a candidate for the Bacardi Family Visiting Scholar Chair at the University of Florida for the Center for Latin American Studies

1993 Distinguished Alumna Award "In recognition of outstanding contributions to mankind through the Field of Anthropology" University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

1996 Award presented "in recognition of outstanding public service in support of the United Nations" by the United Nations Association of the United States of America Sarasota-Manatee Chapter.

1996 Decorated by SULABH International Social Service Organization, New Delhi, India "for help in incorporating the important roles of women into the planning , execution, effective use and maintenance of appropriate technologies for excreta disposal". Additional expression of thanks for the donation of collection of articles, technical reports, etc for the library of The Museum of the Toilet.

1997 Outstanding Alumna Award, Queens College, as "Outstanding member of class of 1937", Charlotte, North Carolina.

1998, 1988, 1978, 2003 International Roster of Women Scholars

2000-2001 The Who's Who of American Women 22nd Edition

2000 The World's Who's Who of Women; Marquis Who's Who of American Women

2000-1 The American Biographical Institute's Woman of the Year

2002 Unanimously voted Fellow status by Board of Society for Applied Anthropology

2003 Who's Who in the World; Who's Who in America 57th Edition

2003-2004 Who's Who in Science and Engineering, 7th Edition

2006 Global Women's Humanitarian Lifetime Award by Hindu 1008 Wells

2006 Recommended for the 14th Annual Conservation Award's Lifetime Achievement Award by Sarasota County, Environmental Services, received Certificate of Appreciation

2006 Certificate of Appreciation from Project HOPE

2007 International Professional of the Year by the International Biographical Centre, Cambridge, England

2007 Lifetime Achievement Award of PLACA, the Latin America and Caribbean Water Prizes, Panama

2009 Doctor of Humane Letters (L.H.D.) Honorary Degree, Brown University

2010 Bertha Palmer Centennial Woman of Achievement Award, Sarasota

Unusual honors

1952 Investigated (Blacklisted) by Senator Joseph McCarthy for life work. (See endnote 2)

1977 Given Top Security Clearance by President Jimmy Carter as member of official US Delegation to United Nations Conference on Water, Mar del Plata.

Firsts - Breaking the Glass Ceilings and Introducing Innovations

1936 First women appointed to student government (senior executive committee) University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

1945 Organized black and white women volunteers to integrate the first Traveler's Aid Snack Bar between the waiting rooms for White and Colored passengers in the Railroad Station in Petersburg, VA.

1945 In first group of relief workers to reach war devastated Europe after VE day and before VJ day - on the first non-escorted Victory ship

1946 Designed and directed the Spanish Refugee Program for Secours Quaker (AFSC) with funding form the UN High Commission for Refugees, one of the earliest, if not the first, grant to a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

1952 First woman Director of a CARE Country Program (Mexico)

1954 Designed and negotiated first School Feeding Program in Haiti for CARE

1958 Designed first CARE Water Supply and Sanitation Project with AFSC. See film, "World Our Hands Can Make". President Kennedy used this as documentation to gain approval and support for the Peace Corps. It is still used as a model by World Bank, USAID, and many NGO's. In 2007 recieved Lifetime Achievment PLACA Award

1961 First woman invited to speak at Brown University Inter Fraternity Council

1962 Designed and supervised first summer work/study for Brown students in Latin America with CARE and Peace Corps.

1964 Prepared and presented a course "Community Participation: Volunteers as Facilitators" at the first Peace Corps training program for work in Latin America.

1965 Founding member First Planned Parenthood of Sarasota

1966 Appointed by the Governor of Florida to the First Commission on the Status of Women

1972 Member, Ford Foundation's First Task Force on Women

1975 First woman anthropologist invited to join the World Bank staff. First person to raise gender issues at World Bank - See Bura irrigation project and PROWWESS (Promotion and Support of Women, Water Supply and Sanitation).

1975 - 1995 Raised and helped redefine policy issues about important roles of women/globally and locally, in UNDP/World Bank, WHO, FAO, UNICEF, UNESCO and NGOs, i.e. CARE. Many of these were published in their journals.

1982 First recipient of the Margaret Mead award presented by both the American Anthropological Association and the Society for Applied Anthropology

1991 Presented first display of gender issues in a photographic exhibit based on PROWWESS projects at the annual meeting of the Florida division of UNA/USA

1997 One of the two first women delegates to the United Nations Conference on Water Resources in Mar del Plata. Appointed by President Carter.

2007 First ever winner of the Lifetime Achievement Award of PLACA, the Latin American and Caribbean Water Prizes.



Travel award from CATHALAC to participate in the PLACA Award ceremony, held in the Miraflores Visiting Center of Panama Canal, Republic of Panama and to receive the first Lifetime Achievement Award "in recognition of your special dedication to water and sanitation projects in the region and well beyond." Presented thanks with" El AGUA ES La VIDA".


Wenner Gren Foundation awarded an Historical Archives Program grant in November 2000, and extended it to the end of 2003 to help prepare additional papers and materials covering "the most recent years of her career" to add to the existing repository of the Mary Elmendorf Collection at the University of Florida Smathers Libraries: Special Collections. The finding guide to the Mary Elmendorf Papers available on the Internet:


University of North Texas, Travel grant from the Media Center to return to Chan Kom , Yucatan with Alicia Re Cruz and video crew to document the reaction of the villagers to the showing of the ethnographic films taken by Elmendorf twenty years earlier before the opening of the road


Wenner Gren Foundation awarded a Historical Archives Program grant in December 1993, renewed in July 1994 to aid archiving of Mayan material in the Mary Elmendorf collection at the University of Florida Libraries, Gainesville. Fifteen of the seventeen reels of Super 8 film were found suitable for inclusion in the original gift and sent to the Smithsonian along with recent video taken twenty years later of the reactions and comments of the villagers themselves. "The fact that these movies were taken at the same time as the black and white portraits of the, Nine Mayan Women: A Village Faces Change makes it easier to identify the people within their homes and communities and observe changes in them and their lifestyles. The archiving of duplicate material on the Maya in the National Anthropological Archives at the Smithsonian Institution will make them more readily accessible and enhance the utility of the ethnographic film donated to the Human Areas Film Archives.


Ford Foundation Grant to return to Mexico to present the background materials collected during the 1972-73 Ford Foundation Grant along with an annotated copy of "The Many Worlds of Women: Mexico" to the new Interdisciplinary Women's Studies Program at El Colegio de Mexico, September.


Wenner Gren Foundation Grant (with John Landgraf) to accept the invitation to be guests of the Sabah State Museum in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, where Landgraf's collection of field notes, research materials and artifacts on the Muruts during research with a Fulbright grant in the 50's, when this area was British North Borneo, had been donated. We were housed in the guest apartment at the Museum while we cooperated with museum staff as the materials were being catalogued and arranged for maximum use and display in the new building. A trip with a video crew was arranged for a return to the field and visits with his key informants. June - August. See article "And a Rural Eden" Washington Association of Professional Anthropologists (WAPA) Newsletter: Vol. II, No. 1, September


Research Institute for the Study of Man Grant with support from USAID to do research with Alfonso Villa Rojas on Fertility Determinants Among the Maya, examining variables related to changing family size, age of marriage, etc. Other researchers included Hilaria Mass Coli, and Deborah Merrill. Brigette Jordan also joined me in the first Mayan Midwife training course at the invitation of the National Indian Institute (INI), which was co-sponsored by the Mexican Ministry of Health.


Ford Foundation Fellow to return to Mexico to prepare an annotated bibliography of materials, published and unpublished, on the roles of women in Latin America as a part of the First Task Force on Women. Later, reduced at my request, to Mexico.

Also prepared a list of women writers, researchers, professionals with addresses, etc as well as a list of projects involving women in Mexico.

Attended two conferences:

The Problems of Indian Women, OAS/CIM, Guatemala, June 1973 and

Man in the Americas, AAAS/CONACYT Mexico, July 1973.

Prepared paper "Women, Their Changing Roles- Mexico and Beyond" for presentation at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Chicago, October 1973 which was revised as "The Changing Roles and Status of Women: Mexico" as a report to the First Task Force on Women of the Ford Foundation, November 27, 1973.

Submitted final revision of "The Many Worlds of Women: Mexico" to Janet Giele of the Radcliffe Institute for publication in Women and Society: Roles and Status in Eight Countries, September 1974


Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (with John Elmendorf, New College) to evaluate educational/learning opportunities in "Intentional (hippie) Communities". Visited several groups, which contained numerous disaffected college dropouts, in the Midwest and California with John Elmendorf. Prepared report with recommendations for distance learning and independent study contracts, for programs such as University Without Walls. Other faculty and staff reported on other groups as part of the grant. (See New College archives.)


State Department invitation to travel to the Dominican Republic as a Visiting Specialist to congratulate President Balaguer on his election and for nominating women as governors of all the provinces in, as he said, "Our only hope for peace". The terms of reference were to consult with women leaders and explore ways of assisting women's organizations in the fields of citizenship education and voluntary community services. Later it was expanded to include meeting with men and women, at diverse social levels, in the fields of community development and youth activities.

Visited 22 of the 26 provinces, met with the governors, delivered the offer from the League of Women Voters, through the Overseas Education Fund (OEF), to provide workshops to help them use their new powers more effectively. Through the Minister of Labor, also a woman, an official request was made and a two-year project proposal prepared and approved, with US AID support offered in advance.

Note: see "A Benchmark Study of a Title IX Activity" by Thomas J. Scanlon. 1971. According to this report, "In 1963, two OEF consultants spent two weeks in the DR giving short cursillos to the men and women in Santo Domingo. The program which Mrs. Elmendorf recommended accomplished in one month more than had been accomplished in the four previous years" (p. 91).


IBM travel grant to explore possibilities of a Peace Corps program in Egypt, including acceptance of Jewish volunteers and suggestion for potential projects grant from Tom Watson of IBM. Report sent to Sergeant Shriver, Director of Peace Corps (See Peace Corps archives).


The Radcliffe Institute invited a proposal on "The Roles of Women in Peaceful Social Change", designed to review the important parts played by women from all levels of society in maximizing impacts of technical assistance during my nine years as the Director of Care in Mexico. Proposal was rejected. Note: 5 years later, I revised this same proposal as the basis for research for my Ph.D.


Ford Foundation Fund for Advancement of Education Invited by Vice President Alvin Eurich to accompany John Elmendorf, Vice President and Dean of Mexico City College on a six-week tour of colleges and universities across the USA to evaluate and recommend additions to their overseas studies programs. (See Ford Foundation and New College archives)


Encyclopedia Britannica. Invited by William Benton to set up a trip for and accompany Adlai Stevenson to a Mexican village near an archaeological site during his exploratory trip to Latin America preceding his announcement of intent to campaign for the presidency. Stevenson, who was on the CARE Board made the presentation of sewing machines from The Women's Club in Hyde Park, Illinois to the Club de Mujeres in Mitla, Oaxaca (See Note and also archives of UF and CARE)


Books and Technical Reports

2000 Nine Mayan Women: A Village Faces Change, Questia Media, Inc., at, February.

1990 International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation and Women's Involvement on behalf of the Steering Committee for Cooperative Action for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, Volume 5 World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva.

1986 "A Mid-Term evaluation of USAID-Financed Projects to Agua Del Pueblo and CARE Guatemala", (with Carlos Solares, Richardo Alvarado, Elena Hurtado, and Lis Vielman) prepared for USAID Mission in the Republic of Guatemala, International Science and Technology Institute (ISTI) Washington, D.C.(published in Spanish and English)

1985 Lessons from the Field: How to Involve Women with Ma Yansheng, UNICEF

1984 Role of Women in Water Supply and Sanitation: Implications for Education with Raymond Isely, UNESCO Notes and Comments, n.s. 150, April.

1984 Strategy Paper II- How to Involve Women? (With Yansheng Ma) for the Women's Task Force of the IDWSSD Steering Committee, UNDP, New York.

1983 Water and Sanitation- Related Health Constraints on Women's Contributions to the Economic Development of Communities, with Raymond Isely, WASH Technical Report 17, Arlington, VA.

1982 The Role of Women as Participants and Beneficiaries in Water Supply and Sanitation Programs, with Raymond Isely, WASH Technical Report 11, Arlington, VA.

1981 Women, Water, and the Decade, WASH Technical Report 6, Water and Sanitation for Health, Arlington, VA.

1980 Seven Case Studies of Rural and Urban Fringe Areas of Latin America, editor, Vol. 8,or Public Utilities Report No.RES 23 of "Appropriate Technology in Water Supply and Sanitation," draft form only. The World Bank Washington, DC. 1979.

Note: Distributed in green cover and widely distributed in the World Bank. It was translated into Spanish and approved for final publication after the case study on Haiti was eliminated, but the director of the project resigned before publication so it was never published. These case studies were the first prepared for the World Bank by outside anthropologists. They were widely circulated, read and used in the World Bank's Training Institute. Also the contributing anthropologists, including Frank Miller and Cynthia Cone, were invited to present their material at a Seminar held during WATER Week at the World Bank in the fall of 1979.

1980 Socio-Cultural Aspects of Water Supply and Excreta Disposal with Patricia Buckles. Vol. 5: Appropriate Technology in Water Supply and Sanitation. The World Bank, Washington, DC. (Published in three languages and reprinted several times)

1978 Socio-cultural aspects of Excreta Disposal with Patricia Buckles in Energy, Water and Telecommunications Department ,Public Utilities Notes No.Res.15, "Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Waste Disposal in Developing Countries" September 1978

1976 Nine Mayan Women: A Village Faces Change, Schenkman Publishing Co., John Wiley & Sons, NY, Cambridge, Mass. (Reprinted Schenkman Books, Rochester, VT 1985, 1992 and 2002)

1973 La Mujer Maya y el Cambio, SEP/ Setentas (Secretaria de Educacion Publica/ Ministry of Education), Mexico.

1972 The Mayan Woman and Change. CIDOC (Centro Intercultural de Documentacion/ Intercultural Center of Documentation) Cuernavaca, Mexico.

Articles and Chapters

2010 "Stirling Dickinson and San Miguel de Allende: My Bridge to Understanding the People and Cultures of Mexico" in 2nd Anthology of San Miguel.

2010 "From Relief and Reconstruction to Development: CARE de Mexico, 1952-1960, a Pilot Project," Chapter 1 in Breaking Ground: Post-War Anthropologist, edited by Alice Kehoe and Paul Doughty.

2004 "The Many Worlds of Mayan Women" Chapter 3, pp 39-78 in Rights, Resources, Culture & Conservation in the Land of the Maya, Edited by Betty B. Faust, E.N. Anderson and John G. Frazier, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, CT

2004 "Conclusions: Reflections on Rights, Resources, and Responsibilities in Participatory Research" Chapter 13, pp 255-276, in Rights, Resources, Culture & Conservation in the Land of the Maya, Edited by Betty B. Faust, E.N. Anderson and John G. Frazier, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, CT

2004 "Stirling Dickinson and San Miguel de Allende: My Bridge to Understanding the People and Cultures of Mexico" published online at in second edition March 2004

2003 "Women and Technological Change in Developing Countries: Lessons for the Maya". Chapter in Anthropology's Relevance in the Contemporary World: Essays by the Margaret Mead Award Recipients, edited by Jill Corbin. Forthcoming

2003 "The Many Worlds of Mayan Women" Chapter 3, and "Conclusions: Reflections on Rights, Resources, and Responsibilities in Participatory Research" Chapter 13 in Rights, Resources, Culture & Conservation in Maya Communities of Yucatan, Mexico., Edited by Betty B. Faust, E. N. Anderson and John G. Frazier (being reviewed by Greenwood Publishing)

2001 "Recuerdos del Pasado" en Homenaje al maesto Fernado Camara Barbachano, eds. Barba de Pina Chan, Beatriz, et al. Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico, pp.21-24.

2000 "Water is Life: A View Through the Eyes of Women", invited review paper presented at International Women's University, Hannover, Germany, August 2000 and published in their proceedings and on the web:

1996 Invited participant at the U.S.Follow-Up to the U.N.Fourth World Conference on Women sponsored by the President's Interagency Council on Women at the White House, Washington, May, 1997. One of two women invited from the Gulf Coast of Florida.

1996 "Global to Local: Changing Strategies and Concepts" (with Jono Miller), in proceedings of Sarasota Town Hall on Maximizing Our Quality of Life in a Sustainable Environment, Pre-Habitat II, Sarasota, Florida.

1996 "From Beijing Back and On to Cairo." Newsletter, United Nations Fund for Women (UNIFEM), Gulf Coast Chapter, Vol. 1:3, 1-2.

1996 "Priorities, Challenges, and Strategies: A Feminine Perspective, 1975-1995". Pp. 7-11. In: Pickford, John (ed.), Reaching the Unreached: Challenges for the 21st Century. Proceedings from the 22nd WEDC Conference, New Delhi, India, 9-13 September. Loughborough, UK, Water, Engineering, and Development Centre.

1995 "Component III - Water Supply, Sanitation and Health", in Evaluation of the Public Services Improvement Project (519-0320), with Ronald Witherell, Lewis B. Taylor, James L. Roush, for USAID El Salvador for Cambridge Consulting Corporation, March.

1995 "The Road to Beijing and Back", Bradenton Herald, August. One of four articles published while I was a foreign correspondent during the Beijing Conference

1990 "Social Impacts of Water Supply Projects: NGO's and the Human Dimension." Published in the Proceedings of the International Forum S.O.S. Water is Life, OXFAM-Quebec, Montreal.

1987 "Women and Schistosomiasis," World Health, WHO, Geneva.

1987 "Water Quality and Women in Small Systems", pp. 131-141. Report on International Symposium on Small Systems for Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

1987 "Women, Water and Technological Change in Developing Countries" in Seminar on the Participation of Women in Water Supply and Sanitation Programs Manuscript Report 150e, ed. Zanstra, I. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada

1987 "Women and Faeces Disposal-Lessons Learned at the Mid-DECADE Conference on Women" in Dialogue on Diarrrhoea ,Vol30, AHRTAG (Appropriate Health Resources and Technologies Action Group Ltd.England.)

1986 "Women as Decision-Makers," World Water, Grosvenor Press, Int.

1986 "A Mid-Term evaluation of USAID-Financed Projects to Agua Del Pueblo and CARE Guatemala", (with Carlos Solares, Richardo Alvarado, Elena Hurtado, and Lis Vielman) prepared for USAID Mission in the Republic of Guatemala, International Science and Technology Institute (ISTI) Washington, D.C.(published in Spanish and English)

1986 "Water, Waste and Women: The Hidden Dimension." In Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and Wastewater Management in Asia. Singapore.

1984 "The Softer Side of Software." In Proceedings of the 10th WEDC Conference, Water and Sanitation in Asia and the Pacific, Singapore, August. (Loughborough)

1984 "Women, Water, and Waste: Keys to Development," proceedings of IRC/WHO Symposium, The Local Decade: Men, Women, and Agencies, Amsterdam, May.

1984 "Pertinent Research: Generalization and Linkages Drawn from a Preliminary Review of the Literature on Women in Water and Sanitation." In report of International Conference on Women and Water in Cairo sponsored by INSTRAW.

1983 "Women as Managers of Human Waste: Training for New Roles and Retraining for Old," Proceedings of International Seminar on Human Waste Management, Institute of Housing Studies, Rotterdam, and Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Vol. 1, pp. 114-124.

1983 "Public and Private Roles of Women in Water Supply and Sanitation" with Raymond Isely, Human Organization, Vol. 42, No. 3. pp 195-204.

1983 "Community Participation, A Human Dimension with Promise and Problems", Chapter VII, Safe Water and Sanitation for Health: A Reference Manual. Institute for Rural Water/ AID.

1982 "Women: The Underused Human Resource". Education Medico y Salud, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 463-483. Pan America Health Organization/ Regional Office World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), Washington, DC.

1982 Water and Sanitation-Related Health Constraints to the Economic Development of Communities. In Proceedings of Conference on Women, Health and International Development. Michigan State University, Lansing.

1982 "The Role of Women in Water Supply and Sanitation" with Raymond Isely, World Health Forum, 3:2, 227-230,WHO, Geneva.

1981 "Beyond Access to Improved Water Supply and Sanitation: Impacts on and of Women and Children", Report of AID Seminar, ed. James D. Lindstrom. The Impact of Interventions in Water Supply and Sanitation in Developing Countries, AID, Washington, DC, pp. 93-104.

1981 "Human Resources Development in Water Supply and Sanitation" with J. Austin and D. Warner in Proceedings of the 7th WEDC Conference, Water, People and Waste in Developing Countries, Loughborough, England.

1981 "Women, Water and Waste: Beyond Access", ibid.

1981 "Women, Water and Waste: Beyond Access, revised in Health Needs of World's Poor Women, (pp. 92-95) ED. Patricia W. Blair, Equity Policy Center (EPOC), Washington, 1991.

1981 "Assessing Community Energy Needs: Data Gathering and Dialogue", Development Community Report, Vol. 33, pp. 3-5, Academy for Educational Development, March.

1980 "Chan Kom, Mexico" with Michael MacGarry, pp. 34-37 in1980 Socio-Cultural Aspects of Water Supply and Excreta Disposal with Patricia Buckles. Vol. 5: Appropriate Technology in Water Supply and Sanitation. The World Bank, Washington, DC (Published in three languages and reprinted several times)

1980 "Urban and rural Nicaragua " with Rafael Rodriguez, Charles Pineo pp 28-34, ibid.

1980 "Community Participation in Implementing Water Supply and Sanitation Programs" Technical Note H.R.2.1in Water for the World

1980 "Methods of Operation and Maintenance Training" (with John Austin) Technical Note No. HR 3.M in Water for the World.

1980 "Planning Operation and Maintenance Training" (with John Austin) Technical Note No. HR 3.P in Water for the World.

1980 "Implementing Operation and Maintenance Training" (with John Austin) Technical Note No. HR 3.I.1 in Water for the World.

1980 "Evaluating Operation and Maintenance Training" (with John Austin) Technical Note No. HR 3.I.2 in Water for the World.

1980 "Trip Report to World Conference of the United Nations Decade of Women and NGO Forum", in Copenhagen for American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, July 13-20.

1980 "Changing Roles of Maya Mothers and Daughters." In Women and Technological Change ed M. Cain and R. Dauber pp 149-178. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

1980 "Human Dimensions of Energy Needs and Resources", In Proceedings of International Workshop in Energy Survey Methodologies for Developing Countries, pp 171-176. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

1979 "A Behavioral Case Study: Chan Kom, Mexico" with Michael McGarry, Seven Case Studies of Rural and Urban Fringe Areas in Latin America. Vol. 8, pp 213-225 in Energy, Water and Telecommunications Department, Public Utility Notes as P.U. Report No. Res 23 prepared for the World Bank Research Project on" Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Waste Disposal in Developing Countries" ed. Mary Elmendorf, Washington

1979 ''Urban and rural Nicaragua" with Rafael Rodriguez, Charles Pineo and -pp 164-212 ibid.

1979 "The Artibonite Valley and Port au Prince, Haiti "pp. 223-230 (ibid) in original draft of Eight Case Studies of Rural and Fringe areas of Latin America, as Public Utilities Report No. RES.23

1979 "Anita: A Maya Peasant Women Copes", in Learning About Peasant Women, special issue of Studies in Family Planning ed. S. Zeidenstein, The Population Council: New York, November.

1978 "Citizen Participation for Successful Village Water Supply", Civil Engineering-ASCE, August, Vol. 48, No. 8, p. 68-70, New York.

1977 "Public Participation and Acceptance", in Environmental Impacts of International Civil Engineering Projects and Practices, pp. 184-201. ed Charles G. Gunnerson and John M. Kalbermatten American Society of Civil Engineers, New York.

1977 "The Many Worlds of Women: Mexico", in Women: Roles and Status in Eight Countries: An International Comparative Perspective, pp. 129-171. ed Janet Giele and Audrey Smock, John Wiley Publishing Co., New York.

1976 "The Dilemma of Peasant Women: A View from a Village", in Women and Development, pp. 88-94, ed Irene Tinker and M. Bo Bransen, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Overseas Development Council, Washington

1975 "The Mayan Women and Change", Women Cross Culturally: Change and Challenge, pp. 111-129, ed. Ruby Leavitt, Mouton, The Hague, Netherlands.

Audio Visual

1981 35mm slides taken in Sri Lanka during a six week assignment for the American Public Health Association to participate in preparing a National Water Decade Plan.

1975-1980 35mm coverage of various technologies of Water Supply and Excreta Disposal with a focus on women's roles and activities as part of my assignment on the World Bank UNDP Water Supply and Sanitation Program.

1975 Black and white photographs documenting indigenous peoples, especially women and children, as part of the "Social Impact Assessment" of the Bura Irrigation Project for the World Bank. Note: This report was the first time that gender issues had appeared in any report at the World Bank according to Josette Murphy who did a historical analysis of "women in development" within the organization.

1977 35mm slides of the field work in Guatemala as a part of the National Science Foundation Earthquake Disaster Study.

1970-1976 Videos of the Ethnographic film taken of daily life and ritual in Mayan village of Chan Kom, 1970-1976, donated to the Smithsonian Institution for the National Film Archives as well as supporting research materials for the National Anthropological Archives at the National Museum of Natural History at the request of Jake Homiak, Director, with support from the Wenner Gren Foundation. Duplicates of the original film with more extensive ethnographic material are available at the George A. Smathers Libraries at the University of Florida.

1974-1975 During my appointment as visiting Professor of Anthropology for World Campus Afloat, Chapman College (Now University of Pittsburgh). I took 35mm and Super 8 film to document the material I was using in my seminar on women in cross cultural perspective during field/study trips in 44 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Much of this film is still in its original unedited, undeveloped form. The background material of the countries and the course outline are in the archives at the Smathers Library (University of Florida).

1968 - 1972 Sixteen hundred feet of documentary film (on 4 rolls) on the ethnography of a Mayan Indian Village donated in 1974 to the Instituto Nacional Indigenista (The National Indian Institute), "for the purposes of cultural diffusion"at the request of Alfonso Villa Rojas..

Ethnographic film and tape taken in Chan Kom, Yucatan. Analyzed by Alan Lomax in 1972 for the Choreometrics Project at Columbia University, New York.

1959 World Our Hands Can Make, a 39 minute movie, based on "CARE Mexican Film Story Outline", by Mary Elmendorf .and Robert Champlain of CARE, N.Y., produced by R.K. Tompkins and Associates with support from Peter Rathvon. The director was Benito Alazraki, and the photographer was Peter Reuther. This was based on the CARE/AFSC well drilling project in Santa Maria Atenco.a village near Toluca. This film received an award at the 1960 Cannes Film Festival. In 1994 the film was donated to the Human Studies Film Archives of the Smithsonian Institution at the request of Director Jake Homiak for the new CARE exhibit, which was just being organized at the Smithsonian. Video copies are available.


Conference Presentations, Issues Papers, Proposals, and Workshops

2003 Accepted invitation to participate in the UNIFEM sponsored trip to Cuba with Cross-Cultural Solutions. April 18-26 (changed to October 19-26)

2003 Abstract "From Relief and Reconstruction to Self Help and Development; CARE de Mexico, 1952-60, a pilot program" for invited session Breaking New Ground by the Association of Senior Anthropologists. March 30.

2003 Attended the Annual Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology Building Bridges: Collaborating beyond Boundaries, March 19-23.

§ Presented the Spicer Awards at the business meeting.

§ Attended and accepted appointment to Public Policy Forum

§ Agreed to participate in Oral History Project and contribute selected materials to the Applied Anthropology Archives at the University of Kentucky.

2003 Prepared "Revisions for a draft United Nations Resolution Proclaiming a Second International Drinking Water and Water and Sanitation Decade" for Ambassador John McDonald to be submitted to the UN General Assembly in Sept. 2003. Feb. 2003.

2002 Submitted abstract "Women and the Earth Charter" with Linda Whiteford and Jan Roberts for invited panel Global Apartheid, Environmental Degradation and Women's Action of the Commission on Women at the International Conference of Anthropology and Ethnology (ICAES) July 5-12, 2003, Florence, Italy.

2002 "Memories of Midwife Training in Mexico, 1952-2002: A Personal Perspective of an 85 Year Old Anthropologist". Prepared for the First International Conference On Professional Midwifery and Self-Regulation by CASA (Centro Adolescencia) de San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico, June 19-22.

2001 "Background materials (historical, conceptual, contextual)" prepared for Pete Brosius, drafter of the "Resolution In Support of the EARTH CHARTER" which was endorsed by thirty leading anthropologists and Barbara R.Johnstone, for the Committee on Human Rights. Presented at the 100th Annual Business Meeting of American Association of Anthropologists;the Resolution was passed unanimously, November.

2001 "Women and Technological Change in Developing Countries: Lessons from the Maya" invited paper for the Mead Centennial Session: Margaret Mead's Legacy: Children, Families, and Contemporary Human Issues at the American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC., November.

2001 Planning, evaluation and preparation of workshops and material for a trip to the Yucatan, November 6-16 which was sponsored by the Gulf Coast Chapter of United Nations Voluntary Fund for Women(UNIFEM). Note: This visit was in part a follow-up to Na Molay, the report of the 1997 Congress for Yucatec Mayan women, * See publication by Guadalupe Espinosa Gonzalez Na Molay: Primer Congreso de Mujeres Mayas 1997. Published by UNIFEM regional Office for Mexico, Central America, Cuba and the Dominican Republic.

2001 "Understanding the Maya: Their Culture and Women's Roles" was presented in several sessions as part of orientation before the trip... These activities were based on my research and publications as well as the excellent publication Na Molay.

2001  "Happy 90th Birthday to Gilbert White Memories from 1944-1990 as a valued colleague and mentor" which was requested and included in a private publication, November. (See Endnote3)

2001 "Women, Water, and UNIFEM" Presented at the United States Committee for UNIFEM at panel, The Power of One during the 14th Annual Meeting of the UNIFEM National Committee, Sarasota, Florida June.

2001 "Comments, Corrections and Suggestions for Additions" for the manuscript Sarasota and It's Arts Scene by Pat Ringling Buck, Marcia Corbino and Kevin Dean" for the University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, May.

2001 "Memorandum About Chan Kom: A Village that Chose Progress 1950-2000" for participants of the SfAA tour to Chan Kom, March 2001. (See article "Chan Kom: The Village that Chose Anthropologists" by Hendrick Serrie in the Newsletter of the Society for Applied Anthropology 12(4):10)

2001 "Field Notes on visit to Chan Kom" mailed to Alicia Re Cruz as part of the background for the ethnographic film.

2001 "Remembrances of Times Past: 1950 to Now" in honor of Fernando Camara Barbachano, paper invited, translated and published by Instituto Nacional de Antropologia y Historia (INAH) Mexico.

2000 "List of periodicals, web-sites, publications" for a workshop with 100 local practitioners, engineers, nurses, health workers, from Asia, Africa and Latin America during the Seminar on Water and Health (with Meg Falter) at the at International Women's University, Hannover , Germany, August 2000. Published in the proceedings (For general information see August.

2000 "Water is Life: A View Through the Eyes of Women", invited review paper presented at International Women's University in their seminar Water and Health, Hannover, Germany, August

2000 "The United Nations and ME: Ten Specialized Agencies Viewed Through the Eyes of a Consulting Anthropologist 1945 to 1995" at UN Day Celebration, UNA/USA Sarasota-Manatee Chapter, October 23.

2000 "Mary Elmendorf - A Frustrated Grandma Moses, Unfulfilled Artistic Dreams 1932 -1997 " Unfinished memoir as dictated to Chris Abram and Louise Hazell

2000 "The House that Grew- Memories with Stirling Dickinson" as dictated to Louise Hazell, San Miguel de Allende, GTO, Mexico.

1998 "The Heritage of the Maya- Places and People"; "The Wisdom of the Maya"; "The Many Worlds of the Maya"; "Mayan Ecology- Cultural and Political- in the 21st Century," presented as shipboard lecturer on The Living MAYA for Norwegian Cruise Line .February and November

1998 "Comments on Micro-Enterprise in Andhra Pradesh". Field Report for CARE-India, following visit to area at invitation of Country Director.

1998 "Water Harvesting in the Desert". Invited trip with Mihir Bhatt of the Foundation for Public Interest to visit water project in the desert.

NOTE: Thanks to Food for Work, the women of the village had dug an enormous pit during the dry season which they lined with plastic, sealed by "borrowing" electricity from the high wires above their village, and brought stones in hold the plastic down and lined the edges. This huge basin was built to catch the monsoon rains so that the men did not have to leave the village with their animals during the dry season and so that everyone would have drinking water from the cistern built beside the new "lake". Never have I seen more delighted/proud families.( See field notes with photographs.)

1997 "Comments" as discussant at the panel Yucatec Maya Political and Cultural Ecology: Papers in honor of Mary Elmendorf at The American Anthropological Association Annual Meeting, Washington DC, November.

1997  Discussant on panel "THE FOLLOW-UP TO BEIJING: Globalization and Strategies for the 21st Century." Annual Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology. Seattle, Washington.(Sent comments. Unable to attend),

1997 "Remembering Secour Quaker: Comments, Corrections, and Additions: 1944-46" for draft memoirs prepared by Hugh Jenkins and Howard Wriggins for the Archives of the American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Note: Some of my contributions are included in Wriggins' Picking up the Pieces from Portugal to Palestine :Quaker Relief Work During World War 11,University Press of America, 2003.The Society of Friends were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947 for their work during this period.

1996 "Review of CARE Programs 1945-1965: A Pilot Program Testing Self Help and Community Participation" with the Collection of Historical Documents for the CARE archives, including movie "World Our Hands Can Build" documenting the 1958 CARE AFSC Well-Drilling Project for the archives and prepared for CARE's 50th Anniversary Celebration, Washington, DC.

1996 "Priorities, Challenges, and Strategies: A Feminine Perspective, 1975-1995." Invited keynote presentation  at the 22nd WEDC Conference Reaching the Unreached: Challenges for the 21st Century, New Delhi, India, 9-13 September.

Note:  My trip was sponsored by the UNDP/ World Bank Water Supply and Sanitation Program where I had been a consultant since 1977 when I participated in the Research Project on Appropriated Technologies for Water Supply and Sanitation.

1996 "Integration and Innovation: Linkages in Life", presentation of the Margaret Mead Award to Katherine Detwyler at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology, Baltimore, March.

1996 "Water as a Human Right: Power and Gender at the Global and Local Levels", presented at invited panel during Society for Applied Anthropology, Baltimore, Maryland.

1997  Invited participant at the U.S. Follow-Up to the U.N. Fourth World Conference on Women sponsored by The President's Interagency Council on Women held at the White House, Washington, May

Note: I was the only person invited from the Gulf Coast of Florida except for an African American, Dr. Gladys Branic, Superintendent of the Manatee County Department of Health. We coordinated our trips and found, while having lunch together before the meeting, that we had been born in Chesterfield County, South Carolina, 30 years apart when the south was, of course, still segregated.

1996 "Global to Local: Changing Strategies and Concepts" (with Jono Miller), in proceedings of Sarasota Town Hall on Maximizing Our Quality of Life in a Sustainable Environment, Pre-Habitat II, Sarasota, Florida.

Note: Miller, co-director of the Environmental Studies Program at New College and I were on the planning committee of this all day meeting which was cosponsored by Florida House, UNA/USA, Institute for Affordable Housing , city and county government and several other NGOs.

1995 United Nations Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15 September. Panelist "Empowerment and Participation: the Long View, 1975-1995"sponsored by UNA/USA as the morning session of a two part panel on Local and Global Issues.

Note: The panel on Global Issues, which I not only chaired but planned after a long search for survivors/ pioneers from the first United Nations Conference on Women held in 1975 in Mexico City, included Margaret Snyder, founding Director of UNIFEM; Esther Ocloo , President of Sustainable End of Hunger Foundation (SEHUF), Ghana; Ela Bhatt, organizer and General Secretary of SEWA ,Self-Employed Women's Association; Irene Tinker, founder of Equity Policy Center, USA;Rounaq Jahan from Bangladesh: Gloria Scott, UNDP advisor Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs and later Director of Women in Development at the World Bank, Jamaica; Mallica Vajrathon, special advisor to Gertrude Mongella, Secretary General of the FWCW, Thailand: and even though I had tried unsuccessfully to reach Else Skjonsberg of Norway she joined the panel and shared with all the news of her new book entitled Caring and about her work with fishermen of Lake Victoria.

Coordinated activities with Polly Doughty, who chaired the parallel panel on Local Issues, "American Women, International Concerns" whose purpose was two fold:1) to bring attention to the concerns of US citizens and their own communities regarding the economic empowerment of women , violence against women etc. and (2) to emphasize " the commonalities rather than the differences" between the women of the first world and the women in developing countries.

Prepared a list with names and addresses of Florida women attending the conference and helped start a network of concerned women.

Foreign correspondent for Bradenton Herald at the invitation of the publisher, Dorothy Ridings. Filed several releases, four of which were published.

1994 "Background materials on Mexican Women: Names, addresses, professions and projects" prepared for Women's Global Film Project: Stories of Women Around the World for Maria Nicolo, producer, Maryland Public Television. Project supported by UNIFEM at recommendation of Mildred Marcy.

1994 "An historical review of the best example of Applied Anthropology in the World; INI in Chiapas in 1950" an invited proposal for the Henry Frank Guggenheim Foundation to consolidate an understanding of the parts played by anthropologists in the history and development of the Maya region of Chiapas in the 1950's. Proposal was not approved.

1994 "Chiapas, the Highland Maya, 1950-1994"on Panel in Honor of Alfonso Villa Rojas at Annual Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology, Cancun.

1994 "The Many Worlds of Mayan Women" presented at the University of Florida's Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) Symposium, The Wisdom of the Maya, Gainesville, Florida

1994 "Environmental Strategies: A Partnership Approach for Mexico," strategy paper prepared for Center for Environment Development and Population Activities (CEDPA). Washington, D.C.

1993 "Una mirada retrospectiva: los diversos mundos de la mujer en Mexico: 1973-1993." Keynote speaker at conference at El Colegio de Mexico, September, sponsored by the Ford Foundation for presentation.

Note: Two filing boxes of background papers mostly unpublished and by Mexican authors were donated to El Colegio de Mexico for their new Women Studies Program. This material was collected during my assignment on the Ford Foundation's First Task Force on Women and used to prepare the article, "The Many Worlds of Women : Mexico." 

1993 "After Rio - What?" American Association University Women, Sarasota, Florida.

1992 Trip Reports - Participation in (1) Global Forum at UNCED in Rio de Janeiro, and (2) World Urban Forum in Curitiba, Brazil, for CEDPA, Washington, DC

1992 "The Politics of Sanitation." ECO-URB's seminar on Human Settlements, Rio de Janeiro.

1992 "Environmental Strategies for CEDPA's Mexican Partners". Mimeo, CEDPA (Center for Education Development and Population), Washington, DC

1992 Report to IDRC on "Socio-Cultural Obstacles to Acceptance of the SIRDO", mimeo.

1992 "Trip report to IDRC: A failed success, the SIRDO in Yucatan", mimeo.

1991 "Listening and Learning: Third World Women and Development." Women's Studies Forum, University of Florida, invited by "Friends of Women's Studies" Gainesville, Florida, (Founding meeting)

1990 "The International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade (1980-1990) and Women's Involvement". A review Document prepared for 'WHO, Geneva, with support from the United Nations Development Program on behalf of the Steering Committee for Cooperative Action.

1986 "Women/Irrigation/Domestic Water/Sanitation and their Interrelationship". Trip Report to WHO Jan. 15-18. (See related paper prepared for FAO.)

1985 "Water: The Basic Resource." Panel on Resources and Development at the Association of Women in Development (AWID) Conference. November.

1984 "Women as Change Agents: A Look at Action Research." IDRC Seminar, Proceedings of IDRC Seminar, Women's Issues in Water and Sanitation. Manila, September.

1984 "Women, Water and Waste: Beyond Access." In proceedings of the 7th WEDC Conference, Water, People and Waste in Developing Countries.

1984 "Women, Water and Waste: Keys to Development." Keynote address at the IRC/WHO Symposium, The Local Decade: Men, Women and NGO's , Amsterdam, May.

1984 "Women's Roles and Changing Societies: The Case of Water," Research Alternatives and Priorities Panel, Cornell University Conference on Women and Development: Redefining the Issues, Ithaca, New York, April.

1984 "Women, Water, and Waste: The Hidden Decision". The Interfama Conference, Singapore.

1984 "Generalizations and Linkages: Pertinent Research in the Literature on Women and Sanitation, presented at INSTRAW (Institute for Training and Research on Women) Seminar, Cairo, Egypt, March.

1984 "International Development, Women and Water." Presented at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, February.

1983 "Women's Roles in Irrigation Projects" presented at Rutgers University Workshop in Irrigation and Human Welfare. Rutgers. New Brunswick, New Jersey

1983 "Women as Managers of Human Waste: Training for New Roles and Retraining for Old Roles." Invited presentation at the Seminar on Human Waste Management for Low-Income Settlements. Volume 1, pps. 114-124, Environmental Sanitation Information Center, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, January.

1982 "The Roles of Women in Water Supply and Sanitation" (with Raymond Isely) World Health Forum, 3:2, pp. 229-230, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva.

1982 "A Behavioral Case Study: Chan Kom, Mexico". Field trip with Mike McGarry as part of the research for the World Bank's project  Appropriate Technology for Water and Sanitation, The World Bank.

1982 "Fuelwood in Thailand and Sabah." With John Landgraf on the panel on Energy Policy at the 81st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC, December.

1982 Seven Case Studies of Rural and Urban Fringe Areas of Latin America, editor, Vol. 8 of World Bank Research in Appropriate Technology in Water Supply and Sanitation. The World Bank, Washington, DC Note: There were originally Eight Case Studies but the one on Haiti was eliminated. Draft circulated at the World Bank, but never published for sale.

1982 "Water and Sanitation- Related Health Constraints to the Economic Development of Communities." Presented at Conference on Women, Health, and International Development, Michigan State University, October.

1982 "Where International Work Is and How To Get It." at Women in Natural Resources: An International Perspective, University of Idaho, Moscow, March.

1982 "Promotion and Support of Women in Water Supply and Sanitation". A proposal prepared for funding by the UNDP/World Bank.

Note: This was approved, as UNDP/INT1983 with additional support from NORAD. After several years with additional support from SIDA, CIDA and US AID this was renamed PROWWESS.and produced numerous booklets, strategies, etc.

1982 "Women and the Decade: Roles, Rights and Responsibilities" prepared for WHO for the April Interagency Steering Committee of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.

1981 "Women, Water and the Decade," presented at International Affairs Session of the 100th Annual Meeting of the American Water Works Association, St. Louis, Missouri, June 9.

1981 "Fertility Determinants Among the Maya", presented at National Academy of Science seminar.

1981 "Beyond Access to Improved Water Supply and Sanitation: Impacts on and of Women and Children", presented at Seminar held at the Pan American Heath Organization on The Impact of Interventions in Water Supply and Sanitation in Developing Countries, by U.S. Agency for International Development, March.

1981 "Women, Water and Waste: Beyond Access". Proceedings of 7th WEDC Conference: Water, People and Waste in Developing Countries, Loughborough, England.

1981 Women, Water and the Decade. WASH Technical Report 6, Water and Sanitation for Health, Arlington, VA.

1980 Women, Water and Waste: Beyond Access, Maternal and Child Health in Third World Nations Symposium. Sponsored by Planned Parenthood in New York City, New York, November.

1980 "Community Woodlots: Renewable Energy" a part of a research design for a country wide project in Thailand with USAID team sponsored by MIT Consultants. ''

 1980 "Women, Water and Waste: Beyond Access", presented at Equity Policy Center Workshop on Women and Health at Mid DECADE Forum on Women, Copenhagen, July.

1980 Chaired two panels: "Women and Health" and "Problems of Rural Women" Worldwide, during the NGO Forum (Broadcast by satellite).

1980 "Community Participation and Women's Roles", prepared as part of a six week field trip developing a National Decade Plan for Water Supply and Sanitation as part of a ten person team sponsored by American Public Health Association with funding from USAID. Sri Lanka, March-April

1980 "Beyond Access to Improved Water and Supply and Sanitation: The Impact on and of Women and Children". Presented at US Agency for International Development Seminar, The Impact of Interventions in Water Supply and Sanitation in Developing Countries held at the Pan American Health Organization, March

1980 "Finding Out About Energy Needs and Resources: The Human Dimensions." Presented at the National Academy of Sciences International Workshop on Energy Assessment Methodology Jekyll Island, January.

1979 "Changing Family Structures and Development: Impact on the Child." at Population Growth and Urbanization in Latin America: The Rural-Urban Interface conference of the Midwest Association for Latin America, Michigan State University, October.

1979 "Changing Patterns of Fertility: The Impacts of Contraceptive Technology on a Maya Village". Presented with Alfonso Villa Rojas of Research Institute for the Study of Man to US AID Seminar, September.

1979 "Changing Roles and the Status of Maya Mothers and Daughters in Relations to Marriage and the Family in the Yucatan." at Symposium Changing Attitudes and Behavior Patterns of Yucatan Maya Regarding Marriage and Fertility. Annual Meeting of Society for Applied Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March.

1979 "Anita: A Maya Peasant Woman Copes", Learning About Peasant Women, special issue of Studies in Family Planning. S. Zeidenstein, ed., The Population Council: November, New York.

1979 "Forgetting or Remembering, Ignoring or Listening to the Marginal People." Issues paper prepared for Appropriate Technology International, September.

1978 "Socio-Economic Impact of Development in Chan Kom: 1971-1976: A Preliminary Study." (with Deborah Merrill-Sands) Symposium Regional Development: Yucatan. Presented at annual meeting of Society for Applied Anthropology, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, April, mimeo.

1977-1979 "Rural Women and Change" at W 1977 Wellesley Seminar on Women, Wingspread Conferences on Women and Development and at Brookings Center for InterAmerican Relations Conference on Grassroots Approach to Rural Development.

1977 "The Changing Roles of Mayan Women in the Home and in the Market Place." First Mexican/ Central American Symposium on Research about Women, Mexico City, Mexico, November.

1977 "Village Water Supply: The Importance of Public Participation and Acceptance." Annual Convention of the American Society of Civil Engineers, San Francisco, California in the workshop on Environmental Impacts of International Engineering, October.

1976 UNEP/ Asperden Institute Seminar on "Natural Resources and Social Limits", representing the World Bank Division of Environment and Health.

1976 42nd Congress of Americanists, Paris, participant only.

1976 "Social Impact Reconnaissance in Kenya: Bura Irrigation Project." The World Bank, Office of Environmental and Health Affairs, February. Rewritten and circulated as part of case study material by WID office at World Bank in 1979-80.

1975 "The Changing Roles of Mexican Women." Research report requested by and with support from the Ford Foundation, Mexico and NY

1975 "Mexican Women: Professional, Researchers, Activists and Pioneers-1950- 1975" Included names addresses and short descriptions for the Ford Foundation, Mexico and NY.

1975-1990 Keynote speaker, resource person and facilitator at various conferences, professional meetings 1980-1990 and seminars during the International DECADE of Women(1975-1985) and the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD,1980-1990).

Note: See the IDWSSD and Women's Involvement: A review paper published by WHO.

1974 "The Many Worlds of Women: Mexico" in Women and Society: An International Perspective. Research report under a grant from the Ford Foundation.

1974 "Suggestions ,Recommendations and Resources for Enhancing the Roles of W "omen in Development: Peru, Chile and Brazi lChanging Roles and Status of Women in Chile, Argentina and Peru: A Brief Overview"," Women in Development Consultant, LA-74Advisor, US/AID.

Note: These observations, which were among the first papers prepared for the " hoped-for" new office of Women in Development, were collected while I was on shore in the countries as visiting faculty on World Campus Afloat. Interviews and materials were facilitated by colleagues who had attended the SSRC Seminar earlier.

1974 "Participatory Research in a Mayan Village" invited faculty at the Social Science Research Council sponsored Seminar on Feminine Perspectives in Social Science Research in Latin America in Cuernavaca, July 18-2.

Note: At the request of the organizers, I invited Michael Potashik, SSRC representative, to spend the weekend in Tepotzlan while final reports were prepared.

1973  1993 Una Mirada retrospectiva: los diversos mundos de la mujer en Mexico: 1973-1993" (Two filing boxes of background papers mostly unpublished and by Mexican authors were donated to El Colegio de Mexico for their new Women Studies Program.)

1973 "The Mayan Woman and Change", presented for the panel on Women's Status at the IXth International Congress of Anthropologists and Ethnologists organized by Sol Tax, held in Chicago

1973 Invited guest at the Seminario sobre problemas de la mujer indigena (sponsored by theInter American Commission on Women (CIM) of the Organization of American States, OAS), Guatemala City.

Note : The Mexican government donated my book, La Mujer Maya y el Cambio, which the Ministry of Education had translated and published, to the participants.

1973 "Quality of Life and Mayan Women" on the panel Women and Science on the American Continent, at the CONACYT-AAAS Conference Man in the Americas in Mexico City.

1973 "The Mayan Woman and Change", Presented on the panel Women Cross Culturally: Change and Challenges to the IXth Annual International Conference of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (ICAES) Conference, Chicago, September.

1972 "The Mayan Indian Women and Social Change in Mexico", Presented at the Ohio Wesleyan University Conference on Human Potential and Human Use, April.

1972 "The Mayan Women and Change". Presented at the seminar on Quality of Life at Centro Intercultural De Documentacion (CIDOC) organized by Ivan Illich with Paulo Freire, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

1971 "The "Role of Women as Agents for Peaceful Social Change". A paper presented at the 1971meeting of the Society for International Development, Ottawa.

1971 "Peaceful Social Change: Can Women Make a Difference." Society for International Development (SID) 11th World Conference, November, New Delhi. .

1968 "What is Community Development?" Presented to Ph.D. committee during planning of research program, including past experience and contract for defining development, women's roles and peaceful social change. Union Graduate School, of the University of Experimenting Colleges and Universities, Antioch College.

1968 "Independent Study in Latin America: New College Projects in Latin America." Presented as a member of the Committee on Foreign Study, Council on International Educational Exchange, N.Y. March.

1967 "Mexican Migrants in Florida: Focus on Women and Children". Presented as a member of for the First Florida Commission on the Status of Women.

1967 " Request for Dominican Representation at Costa Rican Conference: URGENT-Action required." Memorandum to Overseas Education Fund courtesy Pan American Airlines, pouch, March 11, 1967

1967 "The Women Governors of the Dominican Republic": Report to the Department of State, based on trip as visiting specialist, February 25-March 18,1967, April 1, 1967

"The Women Governors of the Dominican Republic". Prepared for the Board of the Overseas Education Fund for the League of Women Voters and the Department of State, Washington, DC. Presented to the National Steering Committee of OEF Board Meeting

"Tools and Techniques for New Solutions: A grass roots approach in." the Dominican Republic". Report to the Overseas Education Fund of the League of Women Voters.

"Summary: OEF and the Dominican Republic: Unexplained Delays" a special report to Martha Briscoe., President of the Board of Overseas Education Fund of the League of Women Voters. June 29, 1967

Note; This explains why I ,at the end of the meeting when the President of the Board announced that OEF had decided to concentrate their work in Mexico from 1967 to 1969 after which they would consider my suggestions, I stated my position strongly that an organization did not request a consultant to obtain a request for assistance which it did not expect to honor and offered my resignation.. US AID had already agreed to initial funding.OEF relented.

Prepared a proposal for workshops in five regional areas and seminars for the women governors, and selected volunteers, which was accepted and implemented during the next three years at a cost of over one million dollars by US AID.

Note: Two evaluations of the project were published:

"The National Civic Education Project for Women Leaders in the Dominican Republic" by Una Cross in OEF NEWS October 1968

A Benchmark Study of a Title IX Activity by Thomas J. Scanlon, 1969. Submitted to US AID. Mr. Scanlon noted that "The program which Mrs. Elmendorf "recommended "(in 1967) accomplished in one month more than had been accomplished in the previous four years". See page 91.

1967 Attended a meeting arranged by Dr. Julio Postigo in honor of my husband, Dr. John Elmendorf, President of New College and others interested in reorganizing the Sarasota-Santo Domingo Sister City exchanges. Among those attending were Dr. Antonio Frias, former mayor of Santo Domingo, representing Senor Pichardo, who had originally presented the keys to the city to Sarasota.

1966 Arranged an extension of the Brown/Care/ Peace Corps program to include New College and started orientation and preparation with a few students. Also later helped select two Dominicans to come as exchange students to New College.

Note: One of these students, Daisy Mejia, later attended the School of Social Work at the University of St. Louis and with a Ford Foundation Grant, completed her PhD in psychology at Columbia. University. She is now teaching at USF at Fort Myers. ( See Archives of New College and newspaper clippings}

1965 "Independent Study Projects for New College Students in the Dominican Republic", the first off-campus Independent Study Projects (ISPs)

Note: This project was designed at the request of Dallas Dort, President of the New College Board of Trustees and founding member of the Sister Cities program. When my husband accepted his appointment as President of New College, Dort asked if I would be willing to building on the existing program started at Brown University for New College students. I accepted with pleasure and with the help of Don Pearson, Brown graduate, who was studying in Guatemala as recipient of the first Arnold Fellowship, given by Tom Watson of IBM, not only designed off campus study for New College students in the Dominican Republic, but also later in Mexico, Guatemala, Haiti and Colombia.(Note See clippings and material in the New College Archives at the Jane Cook Library).

1964 "Summer Work Study Projects Proposal for Brown University Students in Dominican Republic". Informal contract/ agreement worked out with Andres S. Hernandez (first Peace Corps director in Dominican Republic and in Latin America and first Mexican American appointed by Peace Corps) to place Brown students as aides/interns to Peace Corps volunteers. First for Peace Corps, first for Brown, first for CARE.

Organized a Peace Corp - CARE - Brown University bi-national committee to oversee the Brown University summer project which functioned well for several years, with support from the Inter Fraternity Council.

1964  "Community Participation: Volunteers as Facilitator" at first Peace Corps Training for the Dominican Republic at Camp Crozier, Puerto Rico (invited by Prof Lyle MacAllister of the University of Florida) to prepare and present course in Community Development at the three week training program in Arecibo, the FIRST group to be trained for work in Latin America.

1964 "Off campus projects in Dominican Republic: Work Study as Experiential Learning", Presented at Inter-Fraternity Council (IFC) annual meeting. (First overseas Brown program, initiated at the request of students and partially supported by IFC. According to Donald Pearson, President. This was the first time a woman was invited to speak to the IFC.)

1960 "NGOs and the United Nations" at United Nations Seminar on Community Participation and field trips in Latin America, Invited participant, Mexico.

1960 "CARE de Mexico Summary Report 1952-1960", presented at the CARE Board meeting in New York, along with Mary Elmendorf's resignation.

1960 "Notes for Case Study of a Mexican Village." Background Paper for John F. Kennedy's proposal for establishing the Peace Corps. This was supplemented by film World Our Hands Can Build (1959).

1959 "People to People, Women to Women: CARE and NGOs." Annual Meeting of the National Federation of Women's Clubs, Miami.

1959 "World Our Hands Can Build," Technical Notes for Files of documentary film of 1958 CARE/ AFSC well-drilling project. Included in the Deed of Gift to the Human Studies Film Archives of the Smithsonian Institution, 1994.

1957 "Summary of CARE Activities in Mexico: 1952-57." Prepared for meeting of CARE Board of Trustees. Presented in New York headquarters.

1953 "CARE, Que es Care?" (What is Care?). Mimeograph, CARE.

1953 "CARE de Mexico Second Annual Report", presented at the International CARE Conference in Panama City.

1952 "CARE de Mexico First Annual Report", prepared for the International CARE Conference on the Isle of Rhodes.

Note: This report, documenting one of CARE's two pilot projects in self-help and community development, was presented by Richard Reuter, Director of CARE, after my invitation to attend was withdrawn.

1952 "School Feeding Programs for Haiti." Project proposal from CARE

Note. This request was made by the Haitian Cultural Attache, Remy Bastien, in Mexico after Ministry of Health announced in EXCELSIOR, the morning paper, that Mexico had rejected CARE's offer for school feeding programs in the four poorest states of Mexico. He apologized for doing this, but told me that he had been invited to run for President so couldn't afford to accept food from the USA. Besides UNICEF, after hearing about the CARE proposal, had offered powdered milk. "You understand we can accept that since we are part of the UN", he explained. And I did!

Immediately I got in touch with CARE NY with the two bits of news. CARE agreed to earmark the milk they were holding ready for Mexico for Haiti and asked me to go to Haiti to discuss the program. I agreed to do, if accompanied by my husband, who was fluent in French. Together we negotiated a program with Papa Ddoc Francois DuvalierMaguar after visiting suggested areas distributing CARE self-help tools, etc. and received approval from CARE, New York.

1948 "Development of Leadership Patterns Among Students in University Trailer Park: 1946-47." MA thesis, incomplete, in anthropology supervised by John Gillin at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

1945 "Assistance to Spanish Refugees." Proposal requested by Sir Herbert Emerson, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, from the American Friends Service Committee to help this unserved population immediately following VE Day.

Note: During German occupation of France the Spanish Republicans who had fled Spain during Franco's reign were particularly vulnerable. Most had destroyed all their documentation and were receiving no relief or assistance, which was going primarily to Jewish refugees.

The project was approved, the first time, I think, that an NGO received UN funds. To accomplish our tasks we seconded Quaker volunteers to French agencies to assist with processing and reporting of program, another first.( Some information on this project is included in Picking Up the Pieces from Portugal to Palestine: Quaker Refugee Relief during World War 11 by Howard Wriggins, University Press of America, 2003)

1938 "My new friend: Life in Pottsville, Arkansas", a short transcript of conversations with the blacksmith's wife, including a lesson in cheese-making.

Note: After our wedding in St. Paul, North Carolina on December the 27th we had a brief honeymoon in Pinehurst, before taking the train coach to Arkansas where John was principal of a rural school in Pottsville. I had given up my job as social worker in the Asheboro Dept of Public Welfare so had nearly five months to learn how to keep house in our two bedroom and a hall "upstairs apartment." We shared the bathroom and an ice box on the ground floor with Miss Elsie Oates, our landlady to whom we paid $2.50 a month, one bed and dresser included, but not even a stove or sink in the "kitchen". We installed a faucet in a 50 gallon wooden keg, which we had to keep filled by bringing in pails of water from the pump downstairs. I will admit I threw some dishwater out the upstairs window into the shrubbery when possible!

1937 "Achievement and Motivation as Observed Among Rats in Controlled Maze Feeding Experiment." Senior thesis in psychology supervised by Richard Dashiel (with honors Sigma Xi) UNC Chapel Hill.

1933 "Why We Need More Cows in Robeson County." A winning essay submitted, as a member of the 4-H Club, to the Lumberton Kiwanis Club "in an effort to stimulate interest in DAIRYING in Robeson County".

Note: The award, a calf, "could not be mortgaged or in any way disposed of and at the end of the two and one-half year period, the holder of the calf shall give to the Lumberton Kiwanis Club either the amount paid by them for the calf or another heifer calf, born of this calf". This small program later became known as the Heifer Program, which was expanded to Europe during World War II, and is still in operation today as Heifer International.

1932 "Cotton Production in North Carolina: How to Make it Profitable." Presented in a debate emphasizing the need for a cotton co-operative to eliminate the middle man seen as the "farmer's greatest enemy". Awarded first prize: a five dollar gold piece.

1931 Scrap Book on political and international affairs which included my comments and cartoons. At that time I had decided to become a political cartoonist! Project supervised by Civics teacher.


Consulting and Research Selected Long Term Project

1975-1997 The World Bank - Washington, DC

Since August of 1975 I have served as Consulting Anthropologist on a variety of projects as follows:

Investigated the socio-cultural dimensions of introducing appropriate technologies for sanitation improvement in developing countries, using case study method.

Suggested researchers, designed and supervised field work in eight Latin American countries.

Edited the eight case studies, which were translated into Spanish and circulated at the World Bank as Volume 8 of the World Bank Research on Appropriate Technology in Water Supply and Sanitation as Seven Case Studies of Rural and Fringe Areas of Latin America (Haiti was omitted). Vol 8 was translated but never released for publication.

Prepared executive summary and wrote analysis assisted by P. Buckles which was published by the World Bank as Socio-Cultural Aspects of Excreta Dispose, as Volume 5 in Appropriate Technology in Water Supply and Sanitation Series. In three languages, 1980,1982.

Prepared background paper for "Water Week" December, 1990

Presented summary of research at AWID Conference. 1990

Presented paper on "Women as Managers of Human Waste: Training for

New Roles and Retraining for Old" at the International Seminar of Human Waste Management Bangkok, January, 1983,

Also chaired workshop on Community Participation and Training as a part of the World Bank/ UNDP low-cost Sanitation Project.

Reviewed World Bank Handbook on Project Preparation for Water Supply and Sanitation and recommended specific ways to incorporate promotion and support of women as part of community participation. Indicated places in Handbook and accompanying Information and Training Modules to incorporate references to women's roles within broad sauce-cultural framework.

Prepared socio-cultural section of pilot for the Latin American Sector, Women/Water/Sanitation project for Quarter, Mexico, 1989.

Prepared draft paper, "Forests, Fuel, Food and Females," a brief overview of women in World Bank forestry projects, 1980.

Examined socio-cultural impact of development projects in Office of Environment and Health

Participated as member of an appraisal mission on the Bura Irrigation Scheme in Kenya (1975).

Chief of Appraisal Mission to evaluate a Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Nicaragua (1978)

Participated as member of a preparatory mission on first Maternal Child Health and Family Planning in Mexico (1979)

Resource person for Women in Development, 1975-1978, while attached to the Division of Environmental Health as part of Central Projects Staff.

Reviewed and contributed to Annual Abstract Journals, Women, Water, and Sanitation, published by IRC (Int'l Research Center), 1991 and 1995.

1977-1979 Fellow Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM), New York and Yucatan

Designed in collaboration with Mexican anthropologist, Alfonso Villa Rojas, for Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Technologia (CONACYT) and Mexican Ministry of Health, a long-term research project on changing fertility patterns of Mayan women in Yucatan in relation to demographic change. Provided basic information for implementing improved module for maternal child health and family planning service, 1976-1978.

Participated in first Mayan Midwife training with the National Indian Institute in Yucatan at the request of Dr. Gilberto Balam, Director of INI's regional center in Valladolid At my request I was joined by my colleague Brigette Jordan, who had just completed her research for Birth in Four Cultures, including a case study of a Mayan midwife.

1982 - 1997 United Nations Development Program, Division of Global and Interregional Projects, New York. (Later this project became a part of the UNDP/ World Bank Water Supply and Sanitation Programme.)

Prepared original project document for World Bank to support UNDP/ INT.83-003, now called PROWWESS, and helped obtain funding from NORAD, CIDA, and later USAID.

Reviewed and collected over 150 existing research and technical reports on community participation, health education and the roles of women in water supply and sanitation in cooperation with various UN agencies, as well as other governmental and non-governmental organization and research institutions as part of preparatory phase of project "Promotion and Support for Women's Participation in the International Drinking Supply and Sanitation Decade," now called PROWWESS.

Defined priority areas of research and technical report preparation indicating importance of linkages with other components of project and other women in development activities for UNDP/PROWWESS project.

Made exploratory fact-finding field trips to Thailand (Jan. 1983), Sri Lanka (Mar. 1983) and Honduras (Oct 1983) as part of the preparation for an interregional project to promote and support women's participation in drinking water supply and sanitation schemes in selected countries, 1982.

Prepared a list of individuals and institutions as potential resources for collaboration with the project.

Prepared and presented papers concerning the PROWWESS project at various international workshops and seminars including INSTRAW, 1983; WEDU, Singapore, 1984; AWID, Washington, 1985, FSRYE, University of Florida, Gainesville, 1986, , ASCI (American Society of Civil Engineers) University of Colorado, Denver, 1989, UNA/USA, Florida Division Annual Meeting, 1981.

Consultant for World Bank/ UNDP PROWWESS pilot project with UNICEF in Mexico, 1991

Note: Reviewed impact of PROWWESS consultants who were using the new techniques/strategies on UNICEF field programs in State of Mexico, Summer. See draft trip report and photos.

Prepared draft history of UNDP/ INT.82-003 or PROWWESS for World Bank 1992.

Consultant to PROWESS (World Bank/UNDP) 1982-1996

Editorial Reviewer and Contributor to the Abstract Journal Women, Water and Sanitation, published annually by the International Reference Center, The Hague 1985 - 1995.

1982-1991 World Health Organization (WHO) Geneva

Prepared issues paper, "Women and the Decade: Roles, Rights, and Responsibilities" for the Steering Committee of International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, Feb 1982.

Prepared paper, "Women the Underused Resource" for Regional Symposium on Human Resources for IDWSSD, Panama, July 1982, and helped organize workshops with Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), 1982.

Participated as member of The Technical Work Group on the Participation of Organizations Related to Women In Primary Health Care Activities and helped prepare Report by same name. At Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), May 26-28 ,1983, Washington ( See Volume 11and supporting documents in UFArchives).

Discussed draft paper prepared for FAO (see above) and revised. Also reviewed draft for document, Women, Water, and Sanitation,many sections of which I had written, 1984-86.

Visited NEPAL, at the request of SEARO (South East Asia Regional Office of WHO) after a week in Delhi reading the files and working with staff, to meet with the researchers preparing case studies on four projects. Reviewed the papers in the field, made suggestions for revisions, but was unable, because of conflicting assignment, to attend final workshop. Fall1987.

1980-1985 Water and Sanitation for Health Project (WASH), US Agency for International Development Washington, D.C. Arlington, Virginia

Prepared various papers on issues related to community participation and women's roles in designing implementing, using and maintaining improved water and sanitation. (See publications)

Participated in numerous conferences and workshops.

Donated my collection of materials on community participation to the new WASH Library.

Assisted in preparing bibliography. (WASH Technical Report #18) and suggested incorporation of this bibliography with the annotated bibliography forthcoming from IRC ( International Reference Center)

Assisted Peace Corps training staff on Navajo Reservation preparing volunteers for overseas assignments in Water Supply and Sanitation.

Participated in team preparation of feasibility studies for USAID Water and Sanitation Projects in the Philippines,1985 and Honduras, 1980.

1980-1982 Institute for Rural Water, Washington

Prepared background paper on community participation- used in reference manual (see publications)

Reviewed fact sheets for Knowledge Synthesis Project, adding gender issues where missing and incorporating importance of community participation.

Served on editorial board of the publication, Safe Water and Sanitation for Health.

1993 UNPFA Seminar "Women, Population and Environment", Mexico City. Prepared background papers for CEDPA and assisted population and environmental programs for presentation at the seminar.

1992- 1995 Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), Washington.

Worked with CEDPA/ UNPFA delegates at the 1992 UN conference on the Environment (UNCED) and Earth Summit

Assisted in preparation of relevant training materials, shared collection of journals and designs for stoves, latrines, etc as well as trees suitable for renewable energy etc. to help incorporate environmental activities in family planning programs.

Prepared list of environmental agencies, especially NGOs, in Mexico.

Left collection for library of CASA (Centro para Adolescentes.) San Miguel de Allende after regional workshop there.

Visited and evaluated CEDPA assisted projects in five states in Mexico and prepared "Environmental Strategies for CEDPA", work in Mexico.

Attended InterACTION Pathfinder Workshop, "Finding Linkages between Environmental and Population Programs," Oaxaca, Mexico, September.

1993 Participated in InterACTION Forum, May 1993, Washington.

Note:This was an interesting agency since it brought together the growing diverse NGOs who could discuss their programs and hopefully start cooperating in their projects.

Completed draft as working paper for CEDPA "Women, Environment and Population: Discovering Linkages for Sustainable Development: Mexican Strategies".1993. Mexico

Participated in UNPFA Seminar "Women, Population and Environment", Mexico City. Prepared background papers for CEDPA and assisted population and environmental programs for presentation at the seminar.1993.

Designed four scenarios in various ecological regions for use at UNPFA seminar "Gender Issues in Population and Environment" which was used as background paper for UN Conference on Population and Development in Cairo (1994).

1991 Facilitator, Global Assembly of Women and the Environment, co-sponsored by the United Nations Environmental Programme and WorldWIDE, Miami. 1991

1991 Facilitator, World Women's Congress for a Healthy Planet, Miami 8-12 November. 1991

Note: Out of this grew WEDO( Women, Environment and Development)which the late Bella Abzug directed so well.

1985 United Nations Conference on Women, Nairobi. Prepared papers for presentation by staff of UNICEF and PROWWESS at various panels.(Unable to attend).

1984 International Environmental Services (IES) Texas. Director and Vice President for Social Science contract procurement.

1980 Founder and Director of Appropriate Designs for Basic Needs (ADBN). Sarasota and Washington. Accepted various assignments in Asia and Latin America as independent consultant.

1980 Consultant for Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology (PIACT) of Mexico on designing and pre testing information booklets on contraceptives for non-literate, Maya. Worked closely with Mayan midwives as well as with healthcare workers and peasant women particularly in Chan Kom, Yucatan.( See partial report)

1980 Attended the United Nations Mid-Decade on Conference on Women, in Copenhagen for the American Public Health Association (APHA).

Presented papers on two panel s on Health Needs of World's Poor Women for Equity Policy Center (EPOC)on at the invitation of Irene Tinker.

Chaired two discussions on Women, Water, Health and Development, which were broadcast via satellite through the efforts of Lynn Gallagher, International Communications Network, Kalorama Place, Washington

1977-1979 Project Advisory Committee for the National Science Foundation-sponsored Guatemala Earthquake Recovery Study carried out by J. Glittenberg.

Attended several NSF committee meetings and a made field trip to Guatemala with Paul Doughty to the project area.

1977 Member, U.S. Delegation to the United Nations Water Conference, Mar del Plata, Argentina. Appointed by President Carter

Note: I was one of two women delegates on the delegation.Patricia Rosenberg, of Resouces for the Future, and I decided to coordinate our itinerary-including a stop in Iguazu Falls.

1975 Invited participant, UNDP/UNITAR/AAAS Seminar preparatory to the first United Nations International Conference on Women, Mexico.

Note: One of the most interesting things with me was sharing a room with Ela Bhatt, who was presenting a paper on getting bank accounts approved for street sweepers in India- the seeds of Women's World Banking. I was, of course, talking about rural women, Mayan women. Neither of us could understand how the other could work with the groups we were working with, but we became friends. Later, ironically my son, while with USAID in India worked closely with Ela Bhatt's organization , SEWA, and I had several wonderful trips and meetings with her son , Mihir Bhatt, who was extremely interested in water and sanitation and grass roots rural areas. ( See Water Harvesting)

Panelist at The Tribune during the conference and facilitator in organizing support for founding of the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Women, now UNIFEM.

Note: While Peg Snyder, who became founding President of UNIFEM was getting support from the African delegates, I was working closely with the Latin Americans, many of whom I had worked with over the years.

1972-1990 U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

Participated as official member of Research Advisory Committee (RAC), 1979-1982, in quarterly meetings of committee to evaluate research proposals and recommended addition and / or different techniques and methodologies.

Prepared several background papers on Women and Development in Peru, Chile, and Argentina for new office of WID, 1972-73.

Presented papers on Women, Water, and Sanitation at various conferences and workshops, 1980-85, including professional meetings of engineers, ASCE, AWWA, etc. See publications and conference presentations, many for WASH (Water and Sanitation for Health,a US AID supported organization).

Commented on various proposals, especially in field, both final and mid-term as team leader and/or consulting anthropologist for outside agencies-- evaluating projects in the water, sanitation and health sector.

1960 - 1982 Consultant for the Peace Corps, and the Overseas Education Fund of the League of Women Voters

Trained US students in community development for Peace Corps in Puerto Rico to work in Dominican Republic (1965) and on the Navajo Reservation for work in Togo. (1982)

1963-1967 Consultant for the Overseas Education Fund of the League of Women Voters, Washington, D.C.

Member of the Board of the National Steering Committee.

Assisted in planning and implementing leadership training for Latin American women leaders at Wellesley, Pembroke, and Boston University (1963-1966)Guatemala, 1968.

Designed and participated in training workshops for women leaders and governors in the Dominican Republic, 1967.

1987 Assistant to John Landgraf while living at the Sabah Museum in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (formerly British North Borneo). See article in WAPA Newsletter "And A Rural Eden", Vol. 11 No.1, September.1988

1986- 198792 International Science and Technology Institute (ISTI) Washington and Guatemala.

Led six week, five person team in mid-term evaluation of USAID rural water/ sanitation projects in Guatemala, CARE and Agua del Pueblo, in over 150 rural communities. (July- September 1986)

Helped prepare field trip for Indonesian Health Officials to USA, with husband, John Landgraf, October 1987

1985- 1995 International Development Research Centre, (IDRC) Ottawa.

Served as resource person and speaker at IDRC seminar on "Women's issues in Water and Sanitation", Manila, 1984

Prepared plans for field research in Sri Lanka 1987 (Canceled because of violence when my counterpart was murdered).

Participated in Seminars on Participation of Women in Water Supply and Sanitation, Ottawa, 1986 and 1988.

Evaluated socio-cultural aspects of SIRDO, an Integrated System for Recycling Organic Wastes, in Valley of Mexico and Yucatan, 1991

1984-1986 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, Rome.

Prepared a draft background paper and bibliography on "Women/ Irrigation/ Drinking Water/ Sanitation and their Interrelationships" based on a review of the literature and interviews at World Bank, UNDP, USAID, WHO, and selected individuals, 1984

Discussed paper and feelings with staff in Rome and worked closely with Division of Community Forestry on gender issues, 1986.

Participated in workshops/ discussion groups on Irrigation and Drinking Water, 1983, and Women, Technology and Development, New York, 1986

1981-1982 META Systems, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Thailand and Malaysia

Participated as part of a META Systems (USAID) project on Rural Renewable Energy to help design a survey for the National Energy Administration of Thailand.

Prepared, with John Landgraf, a background paper on "Community Woodlots" in cooperation with the Royal Forestry Department

Collaborated with John Landgraf on a field survey of shifting cultivator and forest projects related to renewable energy in Sabah, Malaysia, Oct.-Nov., 1981

1980 American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington, Sri Lanka and at the UN Mid-Decade Conference on Women, Copenhagen

Participated in eight-week assignment in Sri Lanka as a member of an eight-person USAID team which prepared a National Decade Plan for Water and Sanitation . (See slides in Audio-Visual section)

Note: As part of my preparation met with Howard Wriggins who had done research and written about Sri Lanka following our AFSC service in Europe in 45-46,as well as Caroline Ware, who had led a UNDP mission to Sri Lanka many years earlier . Much to my delight I found her report in the UN office there and found it most helpful in analyzing the early efforts in community involvement in installing water pumps, etc.

Prepared sections on community participation, social equity, cultural aspects, women's roles and designed support programs in research, training and evaluation with environmental engineer, John Austin.

Presented discussion paper, "Women, Water and Waste: Beyond Access," in Equity Policy (EPOC) workshop and panels on Women and Health in the Forum of the Mid-Decade Conference of women, Copenhagen, Denmark, July, 1980.

Chaired two thirty minute satellite TV presentation of "Rural Women and Health."

1973-1994 The Ford Foundation, International Division, Fellow, New York and Mexico.

Conducted research relevant to the changing roles and status of Latin American women as part of the first Task Force on Women. Prepared registry of human resources, reviewed projects and literature concerning women in Latin American, concentrating on Mexico and Central America. Prepared manuscript on the many roles of women in Mexico as part of the cross cultural survey of women with Janet Giele of the Radcliffe institute. (Published as a chapter "The Many Worlds of Women: Mexico" in Women and Society: Roles and Status in Eight Countries",An International Comparative Perspective, eds. Janet Gisele and Audrey Smock, eds. John Wiley, Publishing co. )1977)

Organized and Aattended Social Science Research Center (SSRC) First Seminar on Research Methods in Women's Studies, Cuernavaca, Mexico, 1973

Observer at OAS/CIM Seminar, Conference for "Problems of Indian Women Leaders", Guatemala, where copies of my book, La Mujer Maya y el Cambio, a translation by the Mexican Ministry of Education of Mayan Women and Change, Co was donated by the Mexican government .to the participants, Guatemala. 1973


Administrative and Social Work

1952 - 1960 Chief of the CARE Mission, Mexico

Specific duties over eight year period included:

Negotiating and administering CARE's first self help community development program in Lain American; working with Ministries of Education, Agriculture, Health, and the National Indian Institute; planning pilot activities related to: village well-drilling, rural mobile health care, nutrition, basic education, and intermediate technologies; helping to prepare a case study of the CARE/AFSC project which was used as a model for designing a plan for Peace Corp; assisting in writing and directing a film, "World Our Hands Can Build" which illustrated community participation in a village well-drilling project. This film, demonstrating collaboration between two private agencies (CARE and AFSC), governmental- local, state, and national - and international agencies (UNDP, WHO, and UNESCO) organizations in response to locally defined needs was well received at the international film festival.

1945- 1946 Director of Refugee Section of Secours Quaker (American Friends Service Committee), Paris.

Worked directly with Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees in Paris as an American Friends Service Committee Volunteer developing and organizing resettlement and retraining programs, primarily for Spanish refugees in Southern France, with offices in Toulouse, Mountaban and Peripignan.

Delivered food and medicine along with other Quaker volunteers, which was the only organization permitted into the prisons of Drancy and Fresnes where the French were detaining so-called "collaborators" (everyone without perfect French) along with the Germans captured after the liberation of France.

Interviewed "collaborators" helping them make contact with their embassies, friends, or relatives, who could provide information to the French to help them gain release from prison.

Prepared a database and interviewed people seeking their relatives at our offices at Notre Dam de Champ.

1943- 1945 Social Worker for National Travelers Aid Association (USO Member Agency).,

Social Worker Supervising Volunteers, Obtaining Temporary Housing, and Interviewing Persons Requesting Help First in Youngstown, Ohio and Sharon, Pennsylvania: near Camp Shenango, the so called "concentration camp" of the US Army where homosexuals, pacifists, sword swallowers and other "untrustworthy" soldiers were assigned. My specific assignments included supervising volunteers, obtaining temporary housing, and interviewing persons requesting help. Arranged with the Chief of Police to have young women (camp followers) whom he felt were not professional prostitutes to contact me so that I could interview them and help them arrange housing and transportation to keep them from being arrested. Most of these young women had come to say goodbye to their boyfriends who were being shipped overseas from this port of embarkation, but arrived too late. They were left without any funds and needed help. American Red Cross was unable to offer assistance to anyone not legally married to a serviceman. Travelers Aid started getting referrals from the police and direct requests from young women. 1943-44

Petersburg, Virginia: Worked along with the volunteers in the hospitality center between the segregated waiting rooms at the railroad station where US soldiers were given coffee and donuts, as they left for their port of embarkation to Europe. Without enough volunteers, I suggested that for the first time African American mothers should be invited to join the other volunteer mothers in the hospitality center. This was the first time black (colored) and white mothers served refreshments together to the departing soldiers. (No publicity was given to this knowing it might end it, but the mothers were delighted to be working together.)1945

Gulfport, Mississippi: Accepted short term appointment as Director, while Travelers Aid located a permanent director.. Reorganized the office, helped staff and volunteers remove notations (such as "No Jews", "No Blacks", "No Yankees", "No Italians") from housing forms after talking with homeowners.1945

1943 Social Worker at New England Home of Little Wanderers, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Assisted with adoption, working closely with Children's Hospital. All files were coded for religious affiliation as well as race.1937 Social Worker in Southport, North Carolina in the Brunswick County Department of Public Welfare from June through August when she became acting superintendent of public welfare. She had been the only social worker in Brunswick County, the largest and poorest county in the North Carolina. When the superintendent accepted another assignment she was asked to replace him temporarily supervising all of the local and state wide programs including Aid to Dependent Children (ADC), Welfare, including distribution of food and clothing, parole, etc. September 1 transferred to Asheboro as social worker in the County Department of Welfare where she remained until December when she resigned.

1943 Counselor, Putney School, Putney, Vermont.  Counselor-Teacher of Remedial Reading. Dormitory head. Assistant to school Psychologist with testing and counseling.

1940 Co-Director with John Elmendorf of the Putney School's first work-study project in Latin America located in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.

This was to replace Putney's European projects which were no longer possible because of WWII. June- August.

1940 Director of second Putney School work- study project in Latin America.

Note: When the draft Board refused to allow John Elmendorf to leave the USA, I reluctantly agreed to take over all responsibility for planning, travel and study arrangements, but insisted that there be an older woman staff member from Putney in charge of housing and "evening activities" for the twelve students- 9 girls and three boys. This was approved. While I was in Mexico John worked as a Quaker volunteer at the International Fellowship of Reconciliation in Nyack, N.Y. helping German refugees adapt to the US.

1938-1940 Social Worker in New Haven, Connecticut for the Works Progress Administration (WPA) reviewing cases among the African American and Italian districts of the Capitol. Later assigned to a state wide position reviewing the WPA projects on Dutch Elm Disease and helping reorganize local programs in Waterbury.

1937 Social Worker in Southport, North Carolina in the Department of Public Welfare in Brunswick County Department. June- August

Note: This was the largest and poorest county in North Carolina. From June through August I was the only social worker in Brunswick County, the size of Rhode Island! Several friends I made in the rural areas invited me to spend occasional overnights in their homes to keep me from having to drive back to Southport. There was one bed and breakfast at Holden's Beach where I spent several weekends but most of work was around Southport.

Acting Superintendent, Brunswick County Department of Public Welfare August-November.

Note: When the superintendent accepted another assignment I was asked to replace him temporarily supervising all of the local and state wide programs including Aid to Dependent Children (ADC), Welfare, including distribution of food and clothing, Parole, etc .I was fired for removing the sister of a County Commissioner from the clothing list., which I had done after she explained she only used the clothing to cut up for making quilts and agreed that they should go to the needy!

1937 Social Worker in Asheboro, N.C., temporary assignment in the County Department of Welfare where I remained until December when I resigned to get married! November


Academic Appointments


1991 - Present

Affiliate Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

1982 Mentor, New College of Florida, Sarasota

1978 Adjunct Professor, The Union Institute and University, Cincinnati, Ohio.

1975 - 1996

Participated in University workshops and seminars, including presentations at Cornell, Virginia Polytechnical Institute, Rutgers, New College, Consortium of Black Colleges in Atlanta, the Universities of Idaho, Florida, Ottawa, East-West Center, Hawaii, Atlanta, George Washington University, Manatee Community College, and Schulab Institute, New Delhi.

1974 - 1975

Visiting Professor of Anthropology for World Campus Afloat, Chapman College (Now University of Pittsburgh)

Taught seminars on women in cross cultural perspective and applied anthropology with special reference to peasant societies and development. Arranged field/ study trips in 44 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean on two around the world voyages and an interterm in the Caribbean.

1973  Part time Faculty Member, Goddard College, Vermont

Worked with adult students studying for the BA and MA degrees in a non-resident and non -traditional educational program. Gave brief seminars during residency periods and in the field.

1973  Visiting Associate Professor of Anthropology, Hampshire College, Amherst, Mass.

Taught seminar on "Peasants and Change." Course was designed for undergraduates and included both beginning and upper division students.

Note: (Commuted from Sarasota to Amherst weekly for most of the term. Continued contact with several students including Deborah Merrill, who wrote her senior thesis at Hampshire on syncrisity between Catholicism and Mayan beliefs. Later, at my invitation, Deborah first became my research assistant on a World Bank study "Impact of Development Projects on a Mayan Village". Then she joined our RISM- USAID research team "Investigating Fertility Determinants Among the Maya". One of her major contributions was the documentation of increasing importance of bee keeping as a supplement to declining income from subsistence agriculture, a study which led to her 1984 Ph.D. thesis in anthropology/ agriculture at Cornell University. (In 1986, she and I were both working in Rome at FAO headquarters with Deborah working on an annotated bibliography and I preparing a paper on the lack of linkages between irrigation and domestic drinking water.)


1965-1972 Coordinator of Off Campus Studies at New College. Sarasota Fl.

Redesigned the Brown program for New College as independent study/. Projects for New College students in the Dominican Republic at the request of Dallas Dort, Chair of the New College Board of Trustees and founding member of Sister Cities Association. Met with Sister City Association, which had recently named Santa Domingo as Sarasota's first Sister City, to begin exchanges of students and assist with other projects.

Helped select two Dominicans as New College students as part of our participation in the Sister Cities Association. One of these, Daisy Mejia, after graduation won a Ford Fellowship and is now teaching at the University of South Florida in Ft. Myers.)

Worked with faculty and students in getting support and academic credit for experiential learning, as a volunteer with occasional assistance from Madeline Bonin, executive secretary to President John Elmendorf.

Arranged overseas internships for students in CARE and Peace Corps - a pilot project for both agencies, which I had started at Brown. with various international agencies, such as CARE and Peace Corps, and universities.

Extended New College internships/ISPs to Guatemala, where Don Pearson, Brown 65, helped coordinate activities for the New College students. Pearson, with the first Arnold Fellowship provided by Tom Watson of IBM, who readmitted him to Brown after he flunked out, offered to continue working with New College students on ISPs in Guatemala while he did his research there. Except for one trip I made during the term, the students were working independently with CARE and Peace Corps still under Andres Hernandez and Faculty at the University of Santiago as well as USAID.staff.

Joined the efforts of the Florida/ Columbia alliance by assigning-some students there, such as one for Glenda Cimino in an urban area of Bogotá with University of Florida faculty, which was published as written by her as a chapter in a book.

A new College student, Jet Lowe ,did a project in Haiti, where I had previously worked, as had a Brown student ,Dianna Newton.

Obtained grant from a local retired UN employee exclusively for independent studies overseas, and was assigned. James Feeney, graduate student from Goddard who had accompanied his advisor Prof. Himmelhock on his sabbatical here., Feeney organized the files, and supervised an evaluation of "The first three years of off campus ISPs 1965-1968", which was used as part of the accreditation process.

Accepted offer from Florida Presbyterian [now Eckerd College] to collaborate with them in filling slots for summer ISPs in China and India, available through a national grant.

Note: Requested transfer in 1969 of program to New College faculty committee, then chaired by Lyndon Clough with Feeney as staff, so that I could pursue my graduate studies. Faculty delighted to have a funded on-going program in their hands. Now that New College had received accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Universities, matching grants etc could be obtained. (See reports to Board of Trustees, faculty committee, etc. including evaluation of program which was used as part of the accreditation procedure.)

Continued informal contact, 1969-1972, with the off-campus studies program, along with my other duties/ activities as wife of New College President, John Elmendorf. Arranged several assignments in Yucatan where I was doing graduate research among the Maya and set up some research projects in central Mexico with Fernando Camara de Barbachano s, supervised by Fernando Barbachano C.of UNAM..uch as ieBill Herman's" Participation in a Peregrination to the Shrine of Guadalupe". Also one for Glenda Cimino with University of Florida in an urban area of near Cali , Colombia, which was published as written by her as a chapter in a book.

1960 - 1965 Special Counselor in Latin American Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI

Designed work study projects in the Dominican Republic in cooperation with Brown Alumni in Santo Domingo for students.

Presented project proposal to Inter-Fraternity Council (IFC) (first woman invited to speak)

Received support from them for scholarships and expanded the program to Mexico and GQuatemala.

Assisted John Elmendorf and a student committee, co chaired by Don Pearson and Diana Newton, plan and manage a three day LPatin American Seminar at Brown with outstanding speakers from both the academic and diplomatic world.

Supervised Don Pearson, the first recipient of the Arnold Fellowship, given by Tom Watson of IBM, for a post graduate year in Latin America. jointly with faculty.




American Anthropological Association,

Society for Applied Anthropology

Board Memberships:

2000-Present Association of Senior Anthropologists

1993-1995 Florida House Foundation

1992-1995 CLEI- International Council on Local Environmental nitiatives

1991-1996 National College of Midwifery

1983-1990 ENSIC, Environmental Sanitation Center, Asian Institute of Technology, Advisory Board

1982-1985 Global Water Board

1980-1990 International Reference Center for Community Water Supply Advisory Group on Participation and Education

1979-1982 Research Advisory Committee (RAC) of USAID

1979-1981 Editorial Advisory Board of Knowledge Synthesis Project

1976-1979 UNIFEM-United Nations Voluntary Fund for Women- Consultant, UNIFEM/USA, Gulf Coast Chapter, (founding member).

1976-1977 Society for International Development, Women's Committee

1975-1980 World Watch Institute

1972-1973 Association of World Colleges and Universities

1970-1972 Executive Board of Trustees of the Council on International Education and Exchange

1967-Present (Intermittently) United Nations Association/UNA/USA, Florida Division, State and Local Board

1967-1971 Governor's FIRST Commission on the Status of Women, Florida

1966-1968 Sarasota Board of Planned Parenthood, Florida, (Member of First Board)

1965-1968 Civic League of Sarasota County, Florida

1962-1965 National Steering Committee, Overseas Education Fund Leadership Institute for Latin American Women, Wellesley, Boston U, Pembroke/Brown University.

1962-1966 State Board of Planned Parenthood, Rhode Island

1962-1965 The Lincoln School, Providence , Rhode Island

1955-1958 Anglo-American Committee for the United Nations, Mexico

General Memberships:

National Organization of Women (NOW)

Sarasota Historical Society

Florida Trust for Historic Preservation

Association for Feminist Anthropology (Founding),

American Association of University Women (AAUW), Life Member

National Association for the Practice of Anthropology (NAPA) (Founding)

International Congress of Anthropologists and Ethnologists

Audubon Society, Sierra Club, World Watch Foundation,

Sarasota Sister Cities, 1965-Present (intermittently)

Committee on Dumferline, Scotland and Sarasota Centennial 2002

The Caledonian Club, 1999-Present

UNA/USA, (Committee on Global Health and the Environment), 2001-2002

Earth Charter Summits Planning Committee, 2000 present

UNIFEM/USA, Gulf Coast Chapter, Charter member (Resource advisor on Mayan Women)

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom,1939-1968

International Fellowship of Reconciliation, 1943- 1950

National Women's History Museum, Charter Member 2002

Amnesty International, USA 1968-present

Women's Action Council, Founding member 2002

Planned Parenthood of Southwest Florida (Committee of Retired Board and advisor on Mexican Global Partnership and Teen Theater Exchanges between San Miguel de Allende, GTO, Mexico and Southwest Florida)

Interfaith-Interracial Council, Sarasota 1967- present (intermittently)

New College of Florida Foundation,

New College Library Association, (founding member Women's Library Association)

Honorary Member of History Committee of Charter Classes (1964-1967) at New College,

Sarasota, 1999-Present

Democratic Club, Emily's List, People for the American Way, ACLU,

Society of Friends, Sarasota,( Originally New Haven, Ct, Washington, DC)

Former Memberships

National Science Foundation

Ethics Committee of the American Anthropological Association

Member Margaret Mead Award Committee

Equity Policy Center, Latin American Studies Association

National Caucus of Women Anthropologists, (founding)

Washington Association of Professional Anthropologists (founding)

National Association of Practical Anthropologists, (founding)

Association for Women in Development (founding)

American Association for the Advancement of Science1975-1985

American Society of Civil Engineers (honorary

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF)

International Fellowship of Reconciliation (1939-45)

WEDO (Women, Environment and Development) (founding)

Children of the Confederacy (1930-1933)


1965- 1972 The only New College representative at the Society for International Development, American Anthropological Association, and Society for Applied Anthropology.

1964-1965 Designed and supervised pilot project for Brown Peace Corps and CARE.

Note: The contract included depositing a stipend of $165 per student to Peace Corps to be dispersed as a living allowance during the six week field experience, plus an additional $50 per student was sent to cover "Capital Country Orientation" in Santo Domingo. Hospitality was offered by the Brown Alumni and short training sessions were set up by Peace Corps. We received Peace Corps training handbooks, basic health manuals, and advice about vaccinations, insurance, and identification for use as part of the orientation materials during our pre-trip planning in Providence. This same format was used in 1965 when the program was extended to Pembroke students, and was continued at New College in Sarasota, Florida, not only in the Dominican Republic but also in Guatemala where Hernandez had been transferred as director of Peace Corps. Many of the volunteers were assigned to CARE where Peace Corps initiated many of its overseas programs. We understood that the students would not be "invited officially" by the Peace Corps but by the communities where they were working. "In our meeting here with the students we will discuss again the points in your letter of "helping to build" - not building, of trying to have factual material for releases, and of preventing in every way possible damaging articles. I fully realize the importance of this, particularly in the country involved." This pilot project was the first to utilize university students to work as Peace Corps aides/interns ( See correspondence in Archives at Smathers Library)

1965 -1969 See New College

1937 Voted most popular coed at UNC-- probably the squeakiest wheel!. (John Elmendorf would say also the best dancer)

1936 Nominated to Senior Executive committee at UNC Chapel Hill

Note: President of Class, Niles Bond, who was from Lexington , Mass., after I complained to him that the lack of female representation on the committee which used the fees collected from all students for bringing lecturers, dance bands, etc to Campus was similar to the Boston Tea party, "taxation without representation", he nominated me to the committee. Even though there were only 200 women among the 2000 students we still had some rights. We were obligated to live in Spencer Hall, a specific dormitory where we had curfew, dress codes, etc, but we still wanted to share our ideas about how to spend the class funds. Interestingly my picture appears in the yearbook, the Yackety Yack, but my name is not listed among the members of the Executive committee just below. Visible and invisible!! Foot in the door!

1935 Organized Stray Greeks and non-Sorority students as political action group.

Note: We elected a tall brunette, called "Egyptian Ella, as May Queen. The first non-Sorority May Queen. Doing so, we provided a democratic election and new definition of beauty contests. We celebrated with Rites of Spring, including pageantry, etc., not just crowning.

1934-1935 Representative of Sophomore Class of student body, Queens College, formerly known as Queens Chicora College, Charlotte, North Carolina.

1933-1934 President of Freshman Class, Queens College, Charlotte, North Carolina.

1932-1933 Suggested that for our high school Senior Prom we have a Costume Ball, wearing clothes from our local historical collections.

Note: I wore a 90's dress complete with bustle and my date Edward Perry, class president, wore a bowler had and old suit. This was the height of the Depression and none of us had money for anything new so this was fun and called attention to our local History project. My younger (only) sister, Jean (Berry-now) picked up on this and helped write the History of St. Paul, N.C.

1930 Catalogued every publication in the St. Paul High School library. Reviewed books, articles, and manuscripts and created catalogue cards for each book..

1929 Collected artifacts, including personal items, such as clothing, journals, photos and letters from people's attics and trunks to start a History Project.

1928 Won first place/blue ribbon at Robeson County fair with Ann Nash, for wildflower collection.


Health: Excellent

Married to: John Elmendorf, 1937-1980

John Landgraf, 1981-Present

Two children and two step children

Nine grandchildren and one stepgrandchild.

Birthdate: April 13, 1917


May 11, 2003



Union Graduate School, accepted me in the first class of this innovative graduate program, a product of the Union of Experimental Colleges and Universities, including, Sarah Lawrence, Antioch, Bard, Bennington, New College, Goddard, etc. Because of commitments to New College, I had to delay my matriculation until the 2nd class. At the request of UGS in 1975 I agreed to their use of my process of study, including my dissertation along with work I had done since graduating. They were particularly interested in my invitation from the World Bank to work in the Division or Environment and Health, to evaluate the human dimensions of projects. As token woman and anthropologist-the first I, understand on a long term assignment- I was asked to demonstrate what anthropologists could do for the Bank. (see World Bank 1975-1996). Several other UGS graduates participated as part of gaining accreditation, which UGS received in the mid 70s. They operated out of Antioch for a number of years, but later moved to Cincinnati, where it still functions as Union Institute and University. I have served on several Ph D. committees -- Susannah Glusker and the late Bets Giddings.

Queens College, a Presbyterian School for women, sister institution to nearby Davidson College, had merged with Chicora College, Colombia, South Carolina, where my mother had gone, just before I arrived there. In fact the President of Queens-Chicora, as it was called for a few years, was Rev. Byrd, the same man who had been President when my mother was at Chicora 20-plus years earlier! I was told to be in the same suite with an older cousin--to watch over me, I felt!

Even though I was President of the Freshman class, Sophomore representative on student government, etc, after two years of Latin, Bible, I had had enough and wanted to learn about the problems of the world and how to solve them... so, transferred to UNC, Chapel Hill. Fifty years later, much to my surprise-and pleasure-I was awarded the Outstanding Alumna Award as a member of the class of 1937. By then I had realized how much I had gained in those two years of growing up in the protected environment of Queens.

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill admitted only women who had at least a B average, agreed to live in a segregated Women's Dorm with a matron, rules, etc. and wanted to take courses not given in the women's university. In my case, this was Public Administration and Social Work. My senior year the School of Public Administration and Social work was approved as a graduate school, so my advisor, Katherine Jocher, a great teacher and one of the few women Faculty members, suggested that I major in psychology or sociology, each of which I had enough courses in to concentrate and write a thesis-- which I did in Psychology-after running an experiment examining aggression in rats. This was a subject I would never have been allowed to major in except that I was already there!!!

At UNC Chapel Hill in 1935-37, there were only 200 women in the student body of 2000. In addition to a BA in psychology I was given graduate credit for the courses I had already taken in the New School of Public Administration and Social Work, so at age 20, I graduated with my BA and was well into my masters. During the following summers ('38, '39) I took the remaining courses. It was the right place for me at the time.

When my father's friends heard that I was going to Chapel Hill, they asked in shock if it was true that his daughter was going to that "Hot bed of communism and free love." Daddy replied that not only was I going, in fact already had a job in the women's dorm, (which I did) but that he was taking me there so that he could introduce me personally to Frank Graham, the President, who, he was sure, would take care of me. He did and he did. Dr. Frank and my father had grown up on adjoining farms, homesteaded in 1770s by the Scots who had come up the Cape Fear River to Fayetteville and settled in Cumberland County.

Dr. Frank, as we all called him at Chapel Hill, not only took care of me, but held open house on the steps of the President's residence every Sunday afternoon. He ran in of the best Universities in the USA. In fact one of the first people I met there was my late husband, John Elmendorf who, after having been admitted to Yale at age 15, delayed entering, to accept a post high school enrichment year at Choate on a full fellowship. He decided against going to Yale a year later and came south, on the advice of his counselor, where he could get just as good an education in Romance Languages, live in a dorm and learn about the south. His family- especially his Vassar educated Mother- was as shocked at his decision as my family's friends at my decision to transfer there my Junior year!.


President Frank Graham, one of the greatest Southerners in history, had a great effect on both me and John, who would never have accepted an appointment as a college president unless he thought he might be as responsive to students as Dr,. Frank.

Note: Graham, in fact was hung in effigy and driven out of the State by conservatives who gradually replaced the Senate seat he was urged to run for with Jesse Helms. The South lost Graham but the United Nations welcomed him) Chapel Hill was perfect for both of us. For 17 years it was home base for me and my late husband who not only dropped out of Yale to come there originally in '33 but returned to complete his Masters and later in 1946, after WWII, decided against going to Harvard to finish his PhD, even though he had been in Boston at the New England Home for Little Wanderers, where I had enjoyed working after we had left the Putney School when John was drafted into the Army

Note: See "Mosiac- 1935-1980" in the Archives of Smathers Library U F and New College of Fl., with information on John Elmendorf , Medics, Military Intelligence, Third Army, Battle of the Bulge etc...

In 1946, after returning from my assignment in Europe with as Director of the Refugee Program for AFSC, I enrolled in the new graduate school of Anthropology, which had just been started by John Gillin. I completed most of the course work, and prepared a draft thesis, evaluating leadership patterns in a college trailer camp. After a threatened miscarriage with my second child I realized I couldn't continue both graduate studies and be a good mother!!! so I got what was probably an MA- abt (all but thesis). Even better, when John, who had just completed all his course work for his PhD, accepted an assignment as director of the Mexican American Cultural Institute in Mexico City, Gillin gave me letters of introduction to his friends in Mexico- Frans Bloom, then working in Chiapas, George Foster, then working in Tzintzunzan, Isabel Kelly , the Smithsonian representative, etc. They and the Mexican anthropologists, Gamio, Caso, Aguirre Beltran,and Covarrubias, who were far ahead of the USA in applied anthropology accepted me within their circle -and my education continued, informally..

Haverford College, just out side Philadelphia, is where, as part of training by the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) to go overseas as a Quaker volunteer, I took a Seminar Relief and Reconstruction. This excellent course which had been developed by Herta Krauss, a German refugee who later returned and help plan the Quaker program in Germany, helped me very much to understand some of the problems we were facing in devastated France .

Along with two other Quaker volunteers, Charlotte Brooks and Lois Jessup, I zig-zagged my way across the Atlantic, hoping to miss any torpedoes, in the first non-escorted Liberty Ship with about twenty other relief workers assigned to UNRA, Red Cross, etc. We three took the train from Le Havre and went straight to the little office to help the exhausted staff from non-aligned countries who had kept it open against many odds during the French occupation.

St. Pauls High School was in the small town of about 2000 people incorporated in 1909 by several business men, including my father, around the St. Paul Presbyterian Church, which had been established in 1799 on a site about 3miles from the present location on the old Stage Coach Road between Fayetteville and Lumberton, the county seat of Robeson County to which it had been moved in 1848. One of the first things the town fathers did was to bring cotton mills into this small community, but voted against allowing the tobacco warehouse to open there -- because they opposed drinking and smoking-- even though many of them, including my father, raised tobacco. In fact my father's farm, which had been a part of the homestead which the Lindsays, Carmichaels, Blacks, etc had settled when some of the rebel Scots who had left Scotland in the 1970s, come up the Cape Fear River and settled along its banks in Cumberland County to which they were given land grants, was less than fifty miles away.

Robeson county, with a population about one third white, one third "colored", and one third Indian was triple-segregated with three school systems and six toilets- even if only outhouses-in every public building.

The Indian population, which had refused to be relocated when most of the native populations, including the Cherokees, ,were marched west, called themselves Croatans and claimed to be descendents of the group which had saved the original colonists, including Virginia Dare, in Roanoke Island.. Pembroke College was exclusively for Indians. It was not until the 1940s, when registration for the national draft for World War II started with forms nationwide with classifications for only" white and colored" that officials in Robeson county were informed that Indians were to be classified as" white". Many years later these Indians were called Lumbees when they took over the county courthouse in Lumberton.

In 1993 when I went to UNC- Chapel Hill to accept the Distinguished Alumna Awarded it was with great pleasure that I met the President of the student body, a bright young woman from Pembroke -/ someone who, in 1935, could not have gone to UNC Chapel Hill as an undergraduate woman or an Indian, and certainly not have been class president! Times change.

There were nearly 100 white students in my first grade, with several sections, but only 11 of us survived to graduate!! Beatrice Sugar, the daughter of the only Jewish family in town, who had learned the Presbyterian catechism with me and invited me to Jewish festivals in her home, was a close friend. She skipped the fifth grade with me and we were co- valedictorians. I didn't meet a Catholic until I went to Chapel Hill, but I knew Presbyterians across the Carolinas!

My one trip out of the Carolinas was to Washington D.C. in 1933, a high school graduation present from my godmother, Anne Tillery (Renshaw), who had been my mother's favorite professor at Chicora College in 1912-14. Mother gave me her book of poems Dream Verses. Even though I loved the special gifts-doubly special during this deep depression in the South- which arrived on birthdays and Christmas from my godmother I never felt comfortable with my middle name, because people called me "Tilly". No longer can I remember how I got to Washington, nor much about the tours of important sights, but I do remember the charming apartment she had on the top two floors of a beautiful brick apartment house on Connecticut Avenue with her School of Elocution in the lower floors. I've also never forgotten my godmother's consternation when the young man she had chosen to take me to a dinner dance at one of the most elegant hotels in Washington didn't show up. After some frantic telephone calling a substitute was found to escort this 16year old. Memories of what happened afterwards are gone, but I arrived home safely and I've always felt comfortable in Washington. Also among the books which I still have is Well Bred Speech, by Anne Tillery Renshaw, published in 1936 obviously written for one of her courses.

In 1915, for his new bride, Jean McGregor, from Ruby, South Carolina, my father built a home on Stage Coach Rd, just across from the Presbyterian Church whose pine-filled surroundings and cemetery were the playground for me and my neighborhood friends I was baptized, went to Sunday school, kindergarten and was married in the St Paul church-- which was the center of my early education and social activities. Later these extended across the two Carolinas with youth conferences at Flora McDonald College in Red Springs, or camps in the mountains etc. as I grew into adolescence. Thanksgiving and every summer were spent at my mother's family home in Ruby, South Carolina with all my 15 McGregor cousins living nearby. (See ME and my Grandmother).

In 1999 on the 200th anniversary of the founding of the church, I with my son Lindsay, and my sister Jean, with her older son, joined nearly 800 people from all over the country who came back to this small town for Mother's day as well as to see each other again. One of the many people I had a reunion with was Buddy Powers, my brother's childhood friend, who was stationed in Paris when I arrived there with the Quakers. (See1999 unfinished memoir "Remembering Secours Quaker: Comments, Corrections and Additions to draft memoirs prepared by Hugh Jenkins and Howard Wriggins:1944-46")


2 Joe McCarthy:

Since Ken Ringle's article from the Washington POST of May 6 2003, noted that "McCarthy often fished for small fry "in the 4,232 pages in the five volumes of long-secret testimony encompasses hearings from 1953 and 1954 I felt it appropriate for me to record my personal memories of some facts from1952.

In 1952 when, out of the blue, there were rumors flying around, my husband, John Elmendorf, tried to find out if and why he was being investigated. In fact he ultimately lost his assignment as Director of the Mexican - American Cultural Institute, at that time part of the Cultural Affairs Office of the Department of State, even though some of the charges had specific reference to his carrying out his assignment, such as associating with Mexico's artists, encouraging exchanges between our countries. Then the two most famous were Siquieros, and Rivera, both of whom were, shall I say?, liberal or communist? Orozco had just died and one of John's first tasks was an invitation from his widow to look at his drawings in his studio and help set up an exhibit -- and hopefully find buyers. Interestingly, the Quakers bought the studio where they still hold regular meetings of the Society of Friends. Down below was the office and some space for accommodations for a few volunteers for the Americans Friends Service Committee (AFSC).

Not only were we getting to know the artists through the post at the Instituto , but also the intellectuals including the wonderful writers of the time including Octavio Paz, Anita Brenner,etc. Also on the Board of the Instituto was Mexico's outstanding physicist, Dr Sandoval Vallarta who had been Dean at MIT for ten years, but was back at the National University of Mexico (UNAM) developing peaceful uses for atomic energy. However he had been Mexico's representative on the International Atomic Energy Board while Alger Hiss had represented the USA. But McCarthy didn't like Hiss- or Sandoval Vallarta-or us.

His wife, Maria Louisa Margain de Sandoval Vallarta , was delighted to pioneer the teaching of Spanish to Americans at the Instituto, which greatly increased the exchanges between the two cultures. She was a wonderful teacher who set a high standard for others who joined the growing Spanish teaching staff. The Margain family included us in their family celebrations, an experience, which continued after Hugo Margain became Mexico's Ambassador to the USA years later. During the McCarthy period, Maria Louisa came to me with a problem, which she didn't want publicized. Dr. Sandoval Vallarta had been invited to give the commencement address at West point, but when he went to the US Embassy to get his visa he was told he would have to be investigated. She didn't want the newspapers to make nasty headlines with the story. He had a diplomatic passport which he could have used, but, as a matter of principle, wanted to be issued a visa. Of course she didn't know how little we could do to help, but John tried, and eventually the visa was issued, the speech made .and no story the Mexican papers.

But back to the Mexican artists. Rufino Tamayo, Mexico's other great artist, had left for the USA where he was teaching at the Dalton school and with whom I had studied during the summers of 1940 and '41 at the Instituto de Bellas Artes in San Miguel de Allende. Both he and I, were down with students, he for Dalton and I, with the Putney School group. I spent my mornings apprenticed to a potter trying to learn ceramics to teach at Putney. Spattered with clay I would pass the room where Tamayo as teaching a class in oil painting to a group school teachers. One day, he invited me to join the art class even though I said I knew nothing about painting. "Good ", he said. (See Frustrated Grandma Moses)McCarthy probably didn't care about this, but Siquieros also had taught mural painting at the Instituto.

John and I lived in the guest house of Stirling Dickinson, Assistant Director of the Instituto de Bellas Artes in San Miguel de Allende, while the two Putney students with us slept in his studio, the summer of 1940. In 1951 Dickinson was thrown out of Mexico at midnight on a boxcar with a number of the faculty including James Pinto and his wife, Leonard and Reva Brooks, on trumped up charges. They were allowed to return after help from many sources, including the Canadian Embassy and Siquieros! We had tried to help, but there was little response from the US Embassy.

TIME magazine later printed an article accusing Dickinson of being a communist and a homosexual. Dickinson sued TIME, lawyers flew into San Miguel. practically every taxi driver was on the baseball team Dickinson had organized before he built the baseball field. He was, after all, an honorary citizen of San Miguel, with friends in every part of the then small community. Time printed two words of retraction: "TIME erred". Dickinson accepted this without asking for any retribution, but many of the faculty felt there should have been some compensation for time and salary lost as well as reputation.

The Putney School too, turned out to be suspect to McCarthy because the son of the headmistress, Bill Hinton had worked in China with FAO., married there, etc. We were warned that we should not associate with Anita Brenner, anthropologist and editor of Mexico This Week, as well as author of the great book Idols Behind Altars which she had published before completing her Ph.D.  In Anthropology from Columbia University. That wonderful book about the combination of Indian and Spanish cultures and another book she had written, Your Mexican Holiday were my constant references as I tried to understand this vibrant exciting country we were living in. Anita also had come to the welcoming reception given for us at the Mexican American Cultural Institute, the night after I arrived in Mexico City. Our son, Lindsay, then 2 and a half, stood in the receiving line with us while infant Susie, slept in her basket on top of the piano so I could slip out of party half way through and nurse her. It was Anita who came to visit us soon after with her seven year old pig-tailed daughter, Susannah and helped us find dependable household help, so we could keep up the nearly mad pace of the Institute job. It was also Anita's husband, Dr. David Glusker, who was our family doctor, just as he was for many of us in the American Community. We continued to see Anita as did our friend, Ben Stephansky, Labor Attaché at the US Embassy, who was her neighbor, but she was shunned by many. In the 1990s I served on the Ph.D. Committee for that same daughter Sussanah Glusker, whose Ph.D. Thesis, Anita Brenner:A Mind of her Own was published with some details of this period including the McCarthy accusations. Another of Brenner's publications, a classic about the Mexican revolution, The Wind That Swept Mexico, has been republished several times by the University of Texas Press.

Probably the most damaging accusation for us came because Dorsey Fisher, the Cultural Attaché in Mexico who was being transferred to Madrid as Political Affairs Officer, recommended John for a post in Spain as Cultural Officer in the Embassy, based on the outstanding job he had done in Mexico with the Mexican American Cultural Institute. Not only was he dropped from that assignment but, of course, not cleared for the new assignment. All at once for doing an outstanding job he was unemployed and unemployable. Dorsey Fisher left Mexico to get ready for his job in Madrid, only to be told at the last minute that his assignment had been changed to Saudi Arabia!! The night before he was to leave he committed suicide!!

Many of the McCarthy accusations related to me. John was asked if he knew I had worked with the Spanish Refugees- Anarchists, Republicans, etc - a job for which I, along with other volunteers, working during and after WW11 had received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947. In fact he was told that I had worked in Spain during the Civil War, feeding refugee children. John told them they had confused me with Mary Elmes-an Irish Quaker who had worked in Spain before coming up to France to work in the Quaker office in Mountaban. John said" Mary Elmendorf and Mary Elmes, both worked in France in the mid 40s, both had black hair, blue eyes and were tall, but Mary Elmendorf, much younger, was a student at Chapel Hill during the Spanish Civil War." Some of my friends had left Chapel Hill to join the Lincoln Brigade, but all of that was far from me then. Somehow I still had- and have today - credit for the wonderful work my Irish friend did! It's even included in material I got from the Freedom of Information Act, but so much was blacked out that it was difficult to understand. One could see why you were called "Black Listed".

Besides all that he was also told that I, his wife, had tried to go behind the Iron Curtain. When he asked if they knew why and explained that I had tried to get an " aller y retour ' to go to Romania to visit the grave of my brother, Calvin Lindsay, a B 24 pilot whose plane had been shot down and landed in Giurgiu as they were headed for the Ploesti oil fields. The villagers in Bujorul hid the few survivors, including bombadier who was asked to identify my brother's body which was floating in the Danube. As he said to me in 1943 when he miraculously found me in the Traveler's Aid office in Gulfport, Mississippi, where I had a temporary assignment. "Could your brother swim? He looked so peaceful as if he had drowned" I assured him that Calvin had been an excellent swimmer, so we both assumed he had been killed by the explosion of the plane. "I removed all his identification, so that is why his family got the "missing in action " report", he continued, "but I .thought his family would like to know what happened. Some of the people in Bujorul helped us hide and escape and buried your brother." Later his remains were moved, with the other soldiers lost in that dangerous mission to a military cemetery in Pietrosani, but I wanted to meet the villagers, thank them personally for my family and take photos for my mother.

The investigators were uninterested in the reason why I had wanted to go "behind the iron curtain" only that I had tried to go! Unfortunately I didn't go, but only because I couldn't get a "Retour" from the graves registration bureau... I had hoped to go very much because I had promised my mother, while I was in Europe, I would try to meet the people who had buried my brother and hidden the other crew members who had survived, As for the charges by McCarthy there was nothing either of us had to hide and wouldn't do again if given the opportunity.

In fact for over a year John tried to clear his name. He had even driven up to Greensboro with our five year old son, Lindsay, and on to Washington to try to find out the charges and clean up our files/ records. It was a very difficult time. Every Embassy party we went to-and there were many-we wondered who was watching us. I felt especially vulnerable when the representatives from the Spanish Republican "Interest Office" (Mexico never recognized Franco Spain!) came over to talk about my work with the Quaker refugee program in France. We knew who the CIA were in the Embassy-at least most of them, but it was depressing to feel so watched and spied upon by one's "friends". Anonymous notes came from people urging us to keep up our spirits.

In fact before all this started, I had taken the CARE assignment on a part time six month basis partly to prove a woman could negotiate an agreement with the Mexican government, and partly to see if, now that my children were three and five, I could manage work and family. With excellent help from my husband and a dependable housekeeper as well as a new cooperative play group set up with friends in our garden, I found our children thriving. I also found the CARE program interesting as well as challenging. With great pleasure and success-- I directed this innovative pilot program in self help and community development in close cooperation with my Mexican colleagues and cooperating agencies- national, international and bilateral-.for nearly nine years! (See CARE and UF archives)

Ultimately John got a part time teaching post at Mexico City College (now University of the Americas); then seven years later went to Brown University, as vice president where he started their international program; then five years later to New College in Sarasota, as President of this innovative, then very experimental liberal arts college at the urging of Al Eurich with whom he had discussed it at the Ford Foundation. With the first three Charter Classes

(Comprised of the brightest student body in the USA according to the late David Reisman, Harvard sociologist, who visited New College regularly as he wrote a case study of this interesting educational experiment), a dedicated faculty, staff and board of trustees, New College got accreditation in less than three years, the shortest time for any college. Even though John had a massive coronary in 1968 and against the advice of his doctor, insisted on returning to New College until it was fully recognized academically, which it was by 1972. However there were never enough funds and no endowment, even though the first President had continued as President of the New College Foundation. In fact, now in 2003, it has just become the Honors College of Florida with national recognition, continuing with very much the same focus of student directed learning, but with an endowment and dedicated alumni. (See New College Archives)

McCarthy caused havoc in many lives-suicides, divorces, lost careers, but for us what seemed a tragedy at the time was a blessing in disguise. The options we had turned to kept John in teaching and education, his great love, and I used all my training, experience and network to demonstrate a new kind of NGO, based on self-help and community participation. Also as the wife of a college president I was able to continue my research and work in anthropology. We were lucky survivors, but many of the others who were wrongly accused, lost their jobs, their careers, their families and friends and some their lives

3.Gilbert White

Note: Along with the "Memories" were several important publications, which greatly influenced my writings and actions including the classic 1972 book Drawers of Water, as well as a collection of tributes and updates thirty years later. Another seminal piece was the publication by him and Barbara Ward on WATER for ALL, which was prepared as part of the preparation for the UN Conference on Water. As I arrived in Mar del Plata to join the official US delegation I met Gilbert who was just leaving, after refusing to stay as part of the delegation. Instead he handed me a copy of his strong proposals, which helped me in my deliberations then and throughout the years following. Often during the International Decade of Water Gilbert and his wife Ann and I would be at the same conferences, often on the same panel, starting with the one in San Francisco with the Conference of Civil Engineers in 1976.

My first encounter with Gilbert however had been in 19 45 when he arrived soon after VE Day in Paris, where I was working with Secours Quaker as a Quaker volunteer for AFSC. Gilbert, one of the first non military person allowed to go in, Gilbert left with his large knapsack filled with warm socks and candy bars to evaluate the situation and report back to AFSC. Soon afterwards he returned with Herta Kraus, from whom I had taken a course on Relief and Reconstruction at Haverford College, to design a program in Germany. John Elmendorf who had just taken his military discharge overseas to join the Quaker volunteer group in Paris also accompanied them. John had been assigned to military intelligence in Germany, survived the Battle of the Bulge and other horrors of war as part of a five-member team, which went ahead of the troops to warn civilians--- and collect information. Now he was going back with a different kind of team to help design the first post WW11 relief in Germany.


July 1, 2003
Edited for Internet 1/29/04


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